Psych Test 5

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motivated behavior is an attempt to reduce this unpleasant state of tension in the body and to return the body to a state of homeostasis
drive-reduction theory
state of tension or arousal that motivates behavior
unlearned drive, such as hunger, that are based on a physiological state
primary drives
learned drives, such as ambition, that are not based on a physiological state
secondary drives
theory of motivation that proposes that organism seek an optimal level of arousal
arousal theory
states that there is an optimal level of arousal for the best performance of any task; the more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated before performance deteriorates
yerkes-dadson law
a desire to perform a behavior that stems from the enjoyment derived from the behavior itself (get enjoyment from doing activity)
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment
extrinsic motivation
a theory of motivation advanced by Maslow holding that higher order motives involving social and personal growth only emerge after lower level of motives related to survival have been satisfied
hierarchy of needs
list the 5 hierarchy of needs from higher need to lower
1. physiological needs
2. safety needs
3. belongingness needs
4. esteem needs
5. self-actualization needs
unlearned motives, such as curiosity or contact, that prompts us to explore or change the world around us
stimulus motives
who said that humans have a need for contact
Harry Harlow
this focuses on a specific object that must be touched, handled, played with, and felt before we are satisfied
behavior aimed at doing harm to others; also the motive to behave aggressively
the need to excel, to overcome obstacles
achievement motive
the desire to work hard and do a good job
work orientation
the preference for difficult or challenging feats, with emphasis on improving one's past performance
the enjoyment of pitting one's skills against those of other people
motivation to be with people
affiliation motive
emotions that are evident in all cultures, contribute to survival, associated with a distinct facial expression, and evident in non-human primates
primary emotions
emotions that are not found in all cultures, may be thought of as subtle combinations of the primary emotions
secondary emotions
states that stimuli causes physiological changes in our bodies, and emotions result from those physiological changes
james-lange theory
states that the experience of emotion occurs simultaneously with biological changes
cannon-bard theory
states that emotional experience depends on one's perception or judgement of a situation
cognitive theory
theory that sees behavior as the product of internal psychological forces that often operate outside our conscious awareness
phsychodynamic theories
the study of psychic energy and the way that it is transformed and expressed in behavior
best known and most influential of the physhodynamic theorists
sigmund freud
according to freud, the energy generated by sexual instinct
in freud's theory of personality, the collection of unconscious urges and desires that continually seek expression (and principle matched)
ID (pleasure principle)
according to freud, the way in which the id seeks immediate gratification of an instinct
pleasure principle
Freud's term for the part of personality that mediates b/t environmental demands and instinctual needs (and principle matched)
ego (reality principle)
according to freud, the way in which the ego seeks to satisfy instinctual demands safely and effectively in the real world
realty principle
according to freud, the social and parental standards the individual has internalized; the conscious and the ego ideal
the part of the superego that consists of standards of what one would like to be
ego ideal
according to freud, a partial or complete halt at some point in the individual's psychosexual development
first stage in freud's theory of personality development in which the infant's erotic feelings center on the mouth, lips, and tongue
oral stage
second stage in freud's theory of personality development in which a child's erotic feelings center on the anus and on elimination
anal stage
third stage in freud's theory of personality in which erotic feeling center on the genitals
phallic stage
according to freud, a child's sexual attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and jealousy toward the parent of the same sex; generally occurs in the phallic stage
oedipus complex, and electra complex
in freud's theory of personality, a period in which the child appears to has no interest in the other sex, occurs after the phallic stage
latency period
in freud's theory of personality of development, the final stage of normal adult sexual development which is usually marked by mature sexuality
genital stage
any personality theory that asserts the fundamental goodness of people and their striving toward higher levels of functioning
humanistic personality theory
according to rogers, the drive of every organism to fulfill its biological potential and become what it is inherently capable of becoming
actualizing tendency

according to rogers, the drive of human beings to fulfill their self-concepts or the images they have of themselves
self-actualization tendency
according to rogers, an individual whose self-concept closely resembles his or her inborn capacities or potentials
fully functioning person
in roger's theory, the full acceptance and love of another person regardless of his or her behavior
unconditional positive regard
in roger's theory, acceptance and love that are dependent on another's behaving in certain ways and on fulfilling certain conditions
conditional positive regard
you are attracted to two incompatible goals at the same time
repelled by two undesirable alternatives at the same time, you are inclined to escape, although other factors often prevent such an escape
you are both repelled by and attracted to the same goal
intentional efforts to change an uncomfortable situation
direct coping
acknowledging a stressful situation directly and attempting to find a solution to the problem or to attain the difficult goal
deciding on a more realistic solution or goal when an ideal solution or goal is not practical
avoiding a situation when other forms of coping are not practical
self-deceptive techniques for reducing stress, including denial, repression, projection, identification, regression, intellectualize, reaction formation, displacement, and sublimation
defense mechanisms
refusal to acknowledge a painful or threatening reality
excluding uncomfortable thoughts, feeling, and desires from consciousness
attributing one's repressed motives, feelings, or wishes to others
taking on the characteristics of someone else to avoid feeling incompetent
reverting to childlike behavior and defenses
thinking abstractly about stressful problems as a way of detaching oneself from them
expression exaggerated ideas and emotions that are the opposite of one's repressed beliefs or feelings
reaction formation
shifting repressed motives and emotions from an original object to a substitute object
redirecting repressed motives and feeling into more socially acceptable channels

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