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motivated behavior is an attempt to reduce this unpleasant state of tension in the body and...
state of tension or arousal that motivates behavior
unlearned drive, such as hunger, that are based on a physiological state
learned drives, such as ambition, that are not based on a physiological state
theory of motivation that proposes that organism seek an optimal level of arousal
states that there is an optimal level of arousal for the best performance of any task; the...
a desire to perform a behavior that stems from the enjoyment derived from the behavior itself...
a desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment
a theory of motivation advanced by Maslow holding that higher order motives involving social...
hierarchy of needs
list the 5 hierarchy of needs from higher need to lower
1. physiological needs2. safety needs3. belongingness needs4. esteem needs5. self-actualization...
unlearned motives, such as curiosity or contact, that prompts us to explore or change the world...
who said that humans have a need for contact
this focuses on a specific object that must be touched, handled, played with, and felt before...
behavior aimed at doing harm to others; also the motive to behave aggressively
the need to excel, to overcome obstacles
the desire to work hard and do a good job
the preference for difficult or challenging feats, with emphasis on improving one's past performance...
the enjoyment of pitting one's skills against those of other people
motivation to be with people
emotions that are evident in all cultures, contribute to survival, associated with a distinct...
emotions that are not found in all cultures, may be thought of as subtle combinations of the...
states that stimuli causes physiological changes in our bodies, and emotions result from those...
states that the experience of emotion occurs simultaneously with biological changes
states that emotional experience depends on one's perception or judgement of a situation
theory that sees behavior as the product of internal psychological forces that often operate...
the study of psychic energy and the way that it is transformed and expressed in behavior
best known and most influential of the physhodynamic theorists
according to freud, the energy generated by sexual instinct
in freud's theory of personality, the collection of unconscious urges and desires that continually...
ID (pleasure principle)
according to freud, the way in which the id seeks immediate gratification of an instinct
Freud's term for the part of personality that mediates b/t environmental demands and instinctual...
ego (reality principle)
according to freud, the way in which the ego seeks to satisfy instinctual demands safely and...
according to freud, the social and parental standards the individual has internalized; the...
the part of the superego that consists of standards of what one would like to be
according to freud, a partial or complete halt at some point in the individual's psychosexual...
first stage in freud's theory of personality development in which the infant's erotic feelings...
second stage in freud's theory of personality development in which a child's erotic feelings...
third stage in freud's theory of personality in which erotic feeling center on the genitals
according to freud, a child's sexual attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and jealousy...
oedipus complex, and electra complex
in freud's theory of personality, a period in which the child appears to has no interest in...
in freud's theory of personality of development, the final stage of normal adult sexual development...
any personality theory that asserts the fundamental goodness of people and their striving toward...
humanistic personality theory
according to rogers, the drive of every organism to fulfill its biological potential and become...
according to rogers, the drive of human beings to fulfill their self-concepts or the images...
according to rogers, an individual whose self-concept closely resembles his or her inborn capacities...
fully functioning person
in roger's theory, the full acceptance and love of another person regardless of his or her...
unconditional positive regard
in roger's theory, acceptance and love that are dependent on another's behaving in certain...
conditional positive regard
you are attracted to two incompatible goals at the same time
repelled by two undesirable alternatives at the same time, you are inclined to escape, although...
you are both repelled by and attracted to the same goal
intentional efforts to change an uncomfortable situation
acknowledging a stressful situation directly and attempting to find a solution to the problem...
deciding on a more realistic solution or goal when an ideal solution or goal is not practical...
avoiding a situation when other forms of coping are not practical
self-deceptive techniques for reducing stress, including denial, repression, projection, identification,...
refusal to acknowledge a painful or threatening reality
excluding uncomfortable thoughts, feeling, and desires from consciousness
attributing one's repressed motives, feelings, or wishes to others
taking on the characteristics of someone else to avoid feeling incompetent
reverting to childlike behavior and defenses
thinking abstractly about stressful problems as a way of detaching oneself from them
expression exaggerated ideas and emotions that are the opposite of one's repressed beliefs...
shifting repressed motives and emotions from an original object to a substitute object
redirecting repressed motives and feeling into more socially acceptable channels