Psych Midterm Exam2

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fast mapping
the ability to categorically link new words to real-world referents; done by trial & error
intelligence (IQ) tests
used to group children, problem: correlated with achievement
attachment of regular inflections to irregular words such as "goed"
phonological awareness
kids understanding of the sound patterns of the language they are aquatinted with
grammar exceptions
learned one at a time
telegraphic speech
simple two word sentences that usually include a noun and a verb
invented spelling
kids with good phonological awareness use this to write
dialogic reading
the use of questions that can't be answered by pointing
behavior with intent to injure another or to damage an object
physical aggression
tatrum; release of frustration
verbal aggression
name calling; increases as verbal skills increase
intrumental aggression
gaining an object; refers to the goal
hostile aggression
aggression aimed at hurting another or gaining advantage
major predictor of child aggression
clarity and consistency of rules
only effective in dangerous situations
authoritarian parenting
what i say goes, no discussion; low warmth, high expectations, clear rules, low communication
permissive parenting
love you no matter what; high warmth, low expectation, not clear rules, low communication
authoritative parenting
most positive parenting style; high warmth, high expectations, clear rules, high communication
uninvolved parenting
low in all four categories
biological approach to gender development
physical difference --> behavior difference; effected by prenatal hormones
psychoanalytic approach to gender development
unconscious desires, edipose complex (boy wants mom, act like dad to win mom)
social-learning approach to gender development
model any male, not just dad, parents reinforce behaviors
social-cognitive approach to gender development
understand gender linked to behavior, effort to imitate male, female, but not until they have gender constancy
gender schema approach to gender development
begins as soon as kids notice the difference (identity)
gender concept
whole developmental process of understanding gender
ability to identity gender & others gender
understand that we stay the same gender our whole life
gender constancy
overall understanding that gender is innate & cannot change
fooled by appearance only transformation
sex-role knowledge
learning what goes with being a boy/girl in a culture
social scripts
prepare kids with autism for an experience, rehearse story to give expectations of social interaction
stereotype threat
sense of pressure felt when you belong to a group that is not expected to perform well
achievement tests
assess learning

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