Psych Midterm 1 - Sensory and Perception

59 cards

psych 100﷯﷯﷯ ﷯﷯﷯﷯﷯﷯ ﷯


 
  
Created Apr 17, 2012
by
miller.5024

 

 
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1

Sensation

 

detection of physical energy by sense organs, which then send information to...

2

Perception

 

the brain’s interpretation of raw sensory inputs

3

Transduction

 

the process of converting an external energy or substance into neural activity

4

Sense receptor

 

specialized cell responsible for converting external stimuli into neural activity...

5

Absolute threshold

 

lowest level of stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect

to...

6

Just noticeable difference (JND

 

smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus

that we can detect

7

Subliminal persuasion

 

subthreshold influences over our product choices

8

Perceptual constancy

 

the process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions

9

Signal detection theory

 

describes how we detect stimuli under certain conditions

signal to...

10

Parallel Processing

 

ability to attend to many sense perceptions at once

11

Bottom-up Processing

 

processing in which the whole is constructed with parts

12

Top-Down Processing

 

processing driven by theory, beliefs or expectations

13

Perceptual Sets

 

sets formed when expectations influence perceptions

14

Perceptual Constancy

 

process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across

varied conditions

15

Inattentional Blindness

 

failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused...

16

Selective attention

 

process of selecting one sensory channel and ignoring or minimizing others

17

Brightness

 

intensity of reflecting light that reaches our eyes

18

Hue:

 

color of light

19

Cornea

 

eye parts containing transparent cells that focus light on the retina

20

Lens

 

eye part that changes curvature to keep images in focus

21

Accommodation:

 

changing the shape of the lends to focus on objects near or far

22

Retina

 

membrane at the back of the eye responsible for converting light into neural

activity

23

Fovea

 

central portion of the retina

24

Acuity

 

sharpness of vision

25

Rods

 

receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in low levels of light

26

Ganglion cells:

 

Only cells in the retinal circuit that contain axons

27

Blind spot

 

part of the visual field we can’t see because of the absence of rods and

cones

28

Cones

 

Receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in color

29

Optic nerve

 

contains the axons of ganglion cells; travels from the retina to the rest

of...

30

Feature detection

 

ability to use certain minimal patterns to identify objects

31

Subjective contours

 

brains provide missing information about outlines

32

Gestalt principles

 

rules governing how we perceive objects as wholes within their

own...

33

Proximity

 

Objects physically close to each other tend to be seen as unified

wholes

34

Similarity

 

Similar objects are seen as comprising a whole

35

Continuity

 

We still perceive objects as wholes, even if other objects block part

of...

36

Closure

 

When partial visual information is present, the mind fills in what’s

missing

37

Symmetry

 

we see objects that are symmetrically arranged as wholes

38

Figure-ground

 

we make an instant decision to focus attention on what we think

is...

39

Trichromatic theory

 

ideas that color vision is based on our sensitivity to 3D colors

40

Color blindness

 

inability to see some or all colors

41

Motion blindness

 

a serious disorder in which patients can’t seamlessly string still

images...

42

Depth perception

 

ability to judge distance and 3D relations

43

Monocular depth cues

 

stimuli that enable us to judge depth using only one eye

44

Binocular depth cues

 

stimuli that enable us to judge depth using both eyes

45

Illusions

 

Moon illusion, Ames room, Muller-Lyer illusion, Ponzo illusion, horizontalvertical

illusion,...

46

Change blindness:

 

we are poor at detecting obvious changes in complex, moving

scenes

47

Synesthesia

 

condition in which people experience cross-modal sensations like

hearing...

48

Visual agnosia

 

deficit in perceiving objects

49

Blindsight

 

when people with cortical blindness can make correct guesses about

things...

50

Audition

 

our sense of hearing

51

Pitch:

 

frequency of the sound wave (higher frequency means higher pitch)

52

Loudness:

 

amplitude/height of the sound wave

53

Timbre

 

quality/complexity of the sound

54

Cochlea

 

bony, spiral-shaped sense organ used for hearing

55

Organ of Corti:

 

tissue containing the hair cells needed for hearing

56

Basilar membrane

 

membrane supporting the organ of Corti and hair cells in the

cochlea

57

Pitch perception

 

Place theory, frequency theory

58

Localization of sound

 

various brain centers localize sounds with respect to our bodies

 

59

Echolocation:

 

emitting sounds and listen to the echoes to determine their distance from a...

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