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Psych Midterm 1 - Sensory And Perception


Psych 100  
  
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Sensation
 
detection of physical energy by sense organs, which then send information to the brain

Perception
 

the brain’s interpretation of raw sensory inputs

Transduction
 
the process of converting an external energy or substance into neural activity

Sense receptor
 
specialized cell responsible for converting external stimuli into neural activity for specific sensory system

Absolute threshold
 
lowest level of stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect
to change 50% of the time

Just noticeable difference (JND
 
smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus
that we can detect

Subliminal persuasion
 

subthreshold influences over our product choices

Perceptual constancy
 
the process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions

Signal detection theory
 
describes how we detect stimuli under certain conditions
signal to noise ratio

Parallel Processing
 

ability to attend to many sense perceptions at once

Bottom-up Processing
 

processing in which the whole is constructed with parts

Top-Down Processing
 

processing driven by theory, beliefs or expectations

Perceptual Sets
 

sets formed when expectations influence perceptions

Perceptual Constancy
 
process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across
varied conditions

Inattentional Blindness
 
failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere
Gorilla in the basketball video

Selective attention
 
process of selecting one sensory channel and ignoring or minimizing others

Brightness
 

intensity of reflecting light that reaches our eyes

Hue:
 

color of light

Cornea
 

eye parts containing transparent cells that focus light on the retina

Lens
 

eye part that changes curvature to keep images in focus

Accommodation:
 

changing the shape of the lends to focus on objects near or far

Retina
 
membrane at the back of the eye responsible for converting light into neural
activity

Fovea
 

central portion of the retina

Acuity
 

sharpness of vision

Rods
 

receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in low levels of light

Ganglion cells:
 

Only cells in the retinal circuit that contain axons

Blind spot
 
part of the visual field we can’t see because of the absence of rods and
cones

Cones
 

Receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in color

Optic nerve
 
contains the axons of ganglion cells; travels from the retina to the rest
of the brain

Feature detection
 

ability to use certain minimal patterns to identify objects

Subjective contours
 

brains provide missing information about outlines

Gestalt principles
 
rules governing how we perceive objects as wholes within their
own context

Proximity
 
Objects physically close to each other tend to be seen as unified
wholes

Similarity
 

Similar objects are seen as comprising a whole

Continuity
 
We still perceive objects as wholes, even if other objects block part
of them

Closure
 
When partial visual information is present, the mind fills in what’s
missing

Symmetry
 

we see objects that are symmetrically arranged as wholes

Figure-ground
 
we make an instant decision to focus attention on what we think
is the central figure and largely ignore what we think is the background

Trichromatic theory
 

ideas that color vision is based on our sensitivity to 3D colors

Color blindness
 

inability to see some or all colors

Motion blindness
 
a serious disorder in which patients can’t seamlessly string still
images processed by their brains into the perception of ongoing motion

Depth perception
 

ability to judge distance and 3D relations

Monocular depth cues
 

stimuli that enable us to judge depth using only one eye

Binocular depth cues
 

stimuli that enable us to judge depth using both eyes

Illusions
 
Moon illusion, Ames room, Muller-Lyer illusion, Ponzo illusion, horizontalvertical
illusion, Ebbinghaus-Titchener illusion

Change blindness:
 
we are poor at detecting obvious changes in complex, moving
scenes

Synesthesia
 
condition in which people experience cross-modal sensations like
hearing sounds when they see colors or even tasting colors

Visual agnosia
 

deficit in perceiving objects

Blindsight
 
when people with cortical blindness can make correct guesses about
things in their environment, even when they can’t see them

Audition
 

our sense of hearing

Pitch:
 

frequency of the sound wave (higher frequency means higher pitch)

Loudness:
 

amplitude/height of the sound wave

Timbre
 

quality/complexity of the sound

Cochlea
 

bony, spiral-shaped sense organ used for hearing

Organ of Corti:
 

tissue containing the hair cells needed for hearing

Basilar membrane
 
membrane supporting the organ of Corti and hair cells in the
cochlea

Pitch perception
 

Place theory, frequency theory

Localization of sound
 
various brain centers localize sounds with respect to our bodies binaural cues, sound shadow

Echolocation:
 
emitting sounds and listen to the echoes to determine their distance from a barrier

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