Psych Midterm 1 - Sensory And Perceptio

Psych 100﷯﷯﷯ ﷯﷯﷯﷯﷯﷯ ﷯
  
Created Apr 17, 2012
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miller.5024
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Side ASide B
Sensation
detection of physical energy by sense organs, which then send information to the brain
Perception
the brain’s interpretation of raw sensory inputs
Transduction
the process of converting an external energy or substance into neural activity
Sense receptor
specialized cell responsible for converting external stimuli into neural activity for specific...
Absolute threshold
lowest level of stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect to change 50% of the time
Just noticeable difference (JND
smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detect
Subliminal persuasion
subthreshold influences over our product choices
Perceptual constancy
the process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions
Signal detection theory
describes how we detect stimuli under certain conditions signal to noise ratio
Parallel Processing
ability to attend to many sense perceptions at once
Bottom-up Processing
processing in which the whole is constructed with parts
Top-Down Processing
processing driven by theory, beliefs or expectations
Perceptual Sets
sets formed when expectations influence perceptions
Perceptual Constancy
process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions
Inattentional Blindness
failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere Gorilla...
Selective attention
process of selecting one sensory channel and ignoring or minimizing others
Brightness
intensity of reflecting light that reaches our eyes
Hue:
color of light
Cornea
eye parts containing transparent cells that focus light on the retina
Lens
eye part that changes curvature to keep images in focus
Accommodation:
changing the shape of the lends to focus on objects near or far
Retina
membrane at the back of the eye responsible for converting light into neural activity
Fovea
central portion of the retina
Acuity
sharpness of vision
Rods
receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in low levels of light
Ganglion cells:
Only cells in the retinal circuit that contain axons
Blind spot
part of the visual field we can’t see because of the absence of rods and cones
Cones
Receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in color
Optic nerve
contains the axons of ganglion cells; travels from the retina to the rest of the brain
Feature detection
ability to use certain minimal patterns to identify objects
Subjective contours
brains provide missing information about outlines
Gestalt principles
rules governing how we perceive objects as wholes within their own context
Proximity
Objects physically close to each other tend to be seen as unified wholes
Similarity
Similar objects are seen as comprising a whole
Continuity
We still perceive objects as wholes, even if other objects block part of them
Closure
When partial visual information is present, the mind fills in what’s missing
Symmetry
we see objects that are symmetrically arranged as wholes
Figure-ground
we make an instant decision to focus attention on what we think is the central figure and...
Trichromatic theory
ideas that color vision is based on our sensitivity to 3D colors
Color blindness
inability to see some or all colors
Motion blindness
a serious disorder in which patients can’t seamlessly string still images processed by...
Depth perception
ability to judge distance and 3D relations
Monocular depth cues
stimuli that enable us to judge depth using only one eye
Binocular depth cues
stimuli that enable us to judge depth using both eyes
Illusions
Moon illusion, Ames room, Muller-Lyer illusion, Ponzo illusion, horizontalvertical illusion,...
Change blindness:
we are poor at detecting obvious changes in complex, moving scenes
Synesthesia
condition in which people experience cross-modal sensations like hearing sounds when they...
Visual agnosia
deficit in perceiving objects
Blindsight
when people with cortical blindness can make correct guesses about things in their environment,...
Audition
our sense of hearing
Pitch:
frequency of the sound wave (higher frequency means higher pitch)
Loudness:
amplitude/height of the sound wave
Timbre
quality/complexity of the sound
Cochlea
bony, spiral-shaped sense organ used for hearing
Organ of Corti:
tissue containing the hair cells needed for hearing
Basilar membrane
membrane supporting the organ of Corti and hair cells in the cochlea
Pitch perception
Place theory, frequency theory
Localization of sound
various brain centers localize sounds with respect to our bodies   binaural cues,...
Echolocation:
emitting sounds and listen to the echoes to determine their distance from a barrier

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