Psych Midterm 1 - Sensory And Perceptio

59 cards

psych 100﷯﷯﷯ ﷯﷯﷯﷯﷯﷯ ﷯


 
  
Created Apr 17, 2012
by
miller.5024

 

 
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1
Sensation
 
detection of physical energy by sense organs, which then send information to the brain
2
Perception
 
the brain’s interpretation of raw sensory inputs
3
Transduction
 
the process of converting an external energy or substance into neural activity
4
Sense receptor
 
specialized cell responsible for converting external stimuli into neural activity for specific...
5
Absolute threshold
 
lowest level of stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect to change 50% of the time
6
Just noticeable difference (JND
 
smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detect
7
Subliminal persuasion
 
subthreshold influences over our product choices
8
Perceptual constancy
 
the process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions
9
Signal detection theory
 
describes how we detect stimuli under certain conditions signal to noise ratio
10
Parallel Processing
 
ability to attend to many sense perceptions at once
11
Bottom-up Processing
 
processing in which the whole is constructed with parts
12
Top-Down Processing
 
processing driven by theory, beliefs or expectations
13
Perceptual Sets
 
sets formed when expectations influence perceptions
14
Perceptual Constancy
 
process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions
15
Inattentional Blindness
 
failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere Gorilla...
16
Selective attention
 
process of selecting one sensory channel and ignoring or minimizing others
17
Brightness
 
intensity of reflecting light that reaches our eyes
18
Hue:
 
color of light
19
Cornea
 
eye parts containing transparent cells that focus light on the retina
20
Lens
 
eye part that changes curvature to keep images in focus
21
Accommodation:
 
changing the shape of the lends to focus on objects near or far
22
Retina
 
membrane at the back of the eye responsible for converting light into neural activity
23
Fovea
 
central portion of the retina
24
Acuity
 
sharpness of vision
25
Rods
 
receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in low levels of light
26
Ganglion cells:
 
Only cells in the retinal circuit that contain axons
27
Blind spot
 
part of the visual field we can’t see because of the absence of rods and cones
28
Cones
 
Receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in color
29
Optic nerve
 
contains the axons of ganglion cells; travels from the retina to the rest of the brain
30
Feature detection
 
ability to use certain minimal patterns to identify objects
31
Subjective contours
 
brains provide missing information about outlines
32
Gestalt principles
 
rules governing how we perceive objects as wholes within their own context
33
Proximity
 
Objects physically close to each other tend to be seen as unified wholes
34
Similarity
 
Similar objects are seen as comprising a whole
35
Continuity
 
We still perceive objects as wholes, even if other objects block part of them
36
Closure
 
When partial visual information is present, the mind fills in what’s missing
37
Symmetry
 
we see objects that are symmetrically arranged as wholes
38
Figure-ground
 
we make an instant decision to focus attention on what we think is the central figure and...
39
Trichromatic theory
 
ideas that color vision is based on our sensitivity to 3D colors
40
Color blindness
 
inability to see some or all colors
41
Motion blindness
 
a serious disorder in which patients can’t seamlessly string still images processed by...
42
Depth perception
 
ability to judge distance and 3D relations
43
Monocular depth cues
 
stimuli that enable us to judge depth using only one eye
44
Binocular depth cues
 
stimuli that enable us to judge depth using both eyes
45
Illusions
 
Moon illusion, Ames room, Muller-Lyer illusion, Ponzo illusion, horizontalvertical illusion,...
46
Change blindness:
 
we are poor at detecting obvious changes in complex, moving scenes
47
Synesthesia
 
condition in which people experience cross-modal sensations like hearing sounds when they...
48
Visual agnosia
 
deficit in perceiving objects
49
Blindsight
 
when people with cortical blindness can make correct guesses about things in their environment,...
50
Audition
 
our sense of hearing
51
Pitch:
 
frequency of the sound wave (higher frequency means higher pitch)
52
Loudness:
 
amplitude/height of the sound wave
53
Timbre
 
quality/complexity of the sound
54
Cochlea
 
bony, spiral-shaped sense organ used for hearing
55
Organ of Corti:
 
tissue containing the hair cells needed for hearing
56
Basilar membrane
 
membrane supporting the organ of Corti and hair cells in the cochlea
57
Pitch perception
 
Place theory, frequency theory
58
Localization of sound
 
various brain centers localize sounds with respect to our bodies   binaural cues,...
59
Echolocation:
 
emitting sounds and listen to the echoes to determine their distance from a barrier


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