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Enduring changes in behavior that occur with experience.
Process by with two pieces of information from the environment are repeatedly linked so that we begin to connect them in our minds.
A form of associative learning in which behaviors are triggered by associations with events in the environment.
Form of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus to which one has an automatic, inborn response.
Unconditioned response (UR)
The automatic, inborn reaction to a stimulus.
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
The environmental input that always produces the same unlearned respones.
A previously neutral input that an organism learns to associate with the UCS.
A behavior that an organism learns to preform when presented with the CS.
Restriction of a CR (such as salivation) to the exact CS to which it was conditioned.
Extension of the association between UCS and CS to include a broad array of similar stimuli.
The weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response, which occurs when the UCS is no longer paired with the CS.
The sudden reappearance of an extinguished responese.
Law of Effect
The consequences of a behavior increase(or decrease) the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated.
The process of changing behavior by manipulating the consequences of the behavior.
An internal or external event that increases the frequency of a behavior.
Innate, unlearned reinforcers that satisfy biological needs (food, water etc.)
Secondary (or conditioned) Reinforcers
Reinforcers that are learned by association, usually via classical conditioning.
The presentation or addition of a stimulus after a behavior occurs that increases how often the behavior will occur.
Removal of a stimulus after a behavior to increase the frequency of that behavior.
Stimulus, presented after a behavior, that decreases the frequency of the behavior.
The removal of a stimuls to decrease behavior.
The addition of a stimulus that decrease behavior.
Simple chamber used for operant conditioning of small animals.
The reinforcement of successive approximations of a desired behavior.
Reinforcement of a behavior every time in occurs.
Reinforcement of a behavior-but not after every response.
Schedules of Reinforcement
Patterns of reinforcements distinguished by whether reinforcement occurs after a set number of responses or after a certain amount of time has passed since the last reinforcement.
Fixed ration (FR) schedule
Pattern of intermittent reinforcement in reinforcement follows a set number of responses.
Variable ratio (VR) Schedule
Pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which the number of responses needed for reinforcement changes.
Fixed interval (FI) Schedule
Pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which responses are reinforced after time periods of differnet durations have passed.
Learned behavior that shifts toward instinctive, unlearned behavior tendencies.
Biological Constraint Model
View on learning proposing that some behaviors are inherently more likely to be learned than others.
Learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement and is not demonstrated until later, when reinforcement occurs.
Conditioned Taste Aversion
The learned avoidance of a particular taste or food.
Learning by doing.
Learning by watching the behavior of others.
Social Learning Theory
A description of the kind of learning that occurs when we model or imitate the behavior of others.
The imitation of behaviors performed by others.
The rapid and innate learning of the characteristics of a caregiver very soon after birth.
The scientific study of animal behavior.
The application of operant conditioning principles to change behavior.