PSYC 375: CHAPTER 9

49 cards

How Do We Sense, Perceive & See the World? {Exam 2 2/4}


 
  
Created Nov 1, 2012
by
jayvhe

 

 
Table View
 
Download
 
Print

Flashcard Set Preview

  Side A   Side B
1
What are sensory receptors?
 
- specialized cells that transduce (convert) sensory energy into neural activity 
2
What are the parts of the sensory systems:
 
- Light: where light energy is converted to chemical {producing action potentials}
-...
3
What is a receptive Field?
 
- region of the visual world that stimulates a receptor cell/neuron
4
What is optic flow?
 
- a stream of visual stimuli that accompanies an observer's forward movement through space 
5
What is auditory flow?
 
- changes in sound heard as a person moves past a sound source or vice versa
6
What do both the auditory and optic flow tell us?
 
- it tells us how fast we are going
- the direction in which we are going 
-...
7
What is receptor density?
 
- it is important in determining the sensitivity of a sensory system
- our sensory systems...
8
What is the neural relay
 
- this is where all receptors connect to the cortex through 3-4 intervening neurons
-...
9
How do sensory signals encode the features of particular sensations?
 
- the presence of a stimulus can be encoded as an increase/decrease in a neuron's firing...
10
what are sensory signals coded as?
 
- as incoming sequences of action potentials to the CNS 
11
How do action potentials code the different kinds of sensations? (ex. vision vs. touch)
 
- different sensations are processed in different cortical areas
- learn to distinguish...
12
What is syntesthesia?
 
- mixing of the senses
- Ex. when you can "feel" sounds
- Ex. like nails...
13
What is the Topographic Map?
 
- spatially organized neural representations of the external world.
- how most mammals...
14
What is sensation?
 
- the registration of physical stimuli from the environment by the sensory organs
15
What is perception?
 
- subjective interpretation of sensations by the brain
- how we interpret what we see 
16
What is the retina?
 
- the light-sensitive surface -- backing of your eye 
- it consists of neurons and...
17
How does the eye work?
 
- as light enters, it bends by the cornea, travels through the pupil, and bends again by the...
18
What is the opening where the blood vessels enter in the eye
 
- the optic disk {aka. blind spot}
19
What are the 2 types of optical errors of refraction?
 
- it's when the lens doesn't bend as much as it's supposed to, and the light just...
20
What is myopia?
 
- nearsightedness 
- the inability to see things far away
- light is undershot...
21
What is hyperopia
 
- farsightedness
- inability to focus on near objects
- light is overshot so it...
22
What is the Fovea?
 
- the region at the center of the retina that specializes in fine detail
- this is also...
23
What is the blind spot?
 
- region of the retina (optic disk) where axons form into the optic nerve and leave the eye 
24
What are 2 conditions of the blind spot?
 
- Papilloedema: swelling of the disk caused by cranial pressure
- optic neuritis: inflamation...
25
The difference between rods & cones?
 
Rods
- more in numbers
- sensitive to light -- good for night vision 
-...
26
What happens when light hits the photoreceptors?
 
- it triggers a chemical reaction that leads to the change in membrane potential 
-...
27
What are the 4 types of retinal-neurons?
 
- bipolar cell: receives input from photoreceptors 
- horizontal cell: links photoreceptors...
28
What are the 2 types of retinal ganglion cells?
 
- magnocellular cell (M cell)
- parvocellular cell (P cell) 
29
What is the magnocellular cell?
 
- receives input mainly from rods
- sensitive to light and moving stimuli {not color...
30
What are parvocellular cells?
 
- Receive input from cones
- sensitive to color differences and form
- found ONLY...
31
What is the Optic Chiasm?
 
- junction of the optic nerves from each eye 
32
Explain the crossing over & visual pathways
 
- axons from the nasal retina cross over to the OPPOSITE side
- axons from the temporal...
33
What is the dorsal visual stream?
 
- pathway that originates in the striate cortex and projects to the PARIETAL lobe.
-...
34
what is the ventral visual stream?
 
- The pathway that originates in striate cortex and projects to the TEMPORAL lobe 
35
How many layers does the striate cortex have>
 
six. {I to V}
36
what do each of the 6 layers of the LGN do?
 
- layer 2, 3, 5: receive fibers from the ipsilateral eye (eye on the same side)
- layer...
37
Which layers do P cells go to?
 
- layers 3-6 because they are responsive to color and fine detail
38
Which layers do M cells go to?
 
- layers 1-2 because it controls info processing  about movement. 
39
What is the tectopulvinar Pathway
 
M cells -> Superior colliculus -> pulvinar 
40
What are the 2 major divisions of the pulvinar
 
- medial pulvinar: which sends connections to the parietal lobe
- lateral pulvinar: which...
41
what is the primary visual cortex?
 
- receives input from the LGN
42
what is the extrastriate cortex?
 
- the visual cortical areas outside the striate cortex 
43
Explain the heterogeneity of V1
 
- blobs: region in striate cortex that contains color-sensitive neurons
- interblob:...
44
explain the heterogeneity of V2
 
- thick stripes: receive information from movement sensitive neurons
- thin stripes:...
45
explain the left and right visual lobe
 
region of the visual world that is seen by your eyes
- left visual lobe: right hemisphere
46
What is the on-center cell?
 
- when light falls onto the central circle
47
What is the off-center cell?
 
- where the lights fall on the periphery of the central circle. 
48
What is the luminance contrast
 
-the amount of light reflected by an object relative to its surroundings. 
49
What is stimulus equivalence 
 
recognizing that an object is the same across different viewing orientations
- so even...

No comments yet! Be the first to add a comment below!

Please login to post comments.
After login, we will forward you back to this flashcard.


Upgrade and get a lot more done!
Upgrade    Cancel