Psyc 208 Chapter 9

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What occurs through extensive practice?
The development of high levels of expertise in novel domains. This development has helped the evolution of human civilization.
What are the three stages of skill aquisition?
The cognitive stage, the associative stage, and the autonomous stage.
Elaborate on the improvement of cognitive skills.
Performance of a cognitive skill improves as a power function of practice and shows modest declines only over long retention intervals.
What does proceduralization refer to?
The process by which people switch from explicit use of declerative knowledge to direct application of procedural knowledge. (eg, riding a bike without thought)
Tactical learning refers to?
A process by which people learn specific procedures for solving specific problems.
Strategic learning refers to?
A process by which people learn to organize their problem solving.
An important dimension of growing expertise is?
The ability to learn to percieve problems in ways that enable more effective problem solving features to apply.
With regards to problem solving, what can experts do?
Recognise patterns of elements that repeat in many problems, and know what to do in the presence of such problems without having to think them through.
As people become more expert in a domain they develop a better ____
Ability to store problem information in a long-term memory and retrieve it.
With regards to practice, how much is needed to develop expertise?
A grreat deal (10 years/10 000 hours)
Elaborate on skill transfer between domains.
There is often failure to transfer skills to similiar domians and virutally no transfer to very different domains.
Transfer of skills only occurs when?
When the same abstract knowledge elements are present.
When is instruction imporved?
When the underlying knowledge compnents are identified and it is ensured that all students master them.
What method would a tutor use to help students rapidly master complex skills?
By carefully monitoring individual components of a skill and providing feedback on learning.

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