Psychology Exam

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Side ASide B
what is psychology?
scientific study of behavior and mental process
The conception of apparent relationships among observed events?
Diagnosing the severity of mental illness and behavior problems is usually the job of a ________ psychologist?
clinical psychologist
John B Watson argued for a psychology based on the study of what?
measurable behavior or observable behavior
Mr. B.F. Skinner made major contributions to the school or psychology known as _________
At the center of psychodynamic theory of human motivation is the ________ ?
___ oriented psychologists use techniques to show that specific sites in the brain mediate thoughts, emotions, and behavior.
Cognitive pshchologists are specifically interested in studying human _____ and ____
thinking and memory
The ____ perspective unites self-fulfillment and free choice as central principles to its approach.
humansitic existential
The issues of ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status are the concerns of ____ perspective
Empirical research must be supported by ______.
A ____ is a segment of population that is targeted for the study
_____ studies are information we collect about individuals or small groups.
In___ ___ researchers study behavior where it actually happens, or in the field.
naturalistic observation
By using the ___ method, researchers investigate whether observed behavior or a measured trait is related to another trait or characteristic
correlational method
The preferred method for asking questions about cause and effect relationships is an _____
In psychological research ethical standards ensure that psychologist do not undertake research methods or treatments that are ____
harmful all of the above question
Each cell in the body contains ___ chromosomes, arranged in __ pairs.
46 chromosomes, 23 pairs
An extra chromosome on the 21st pair causes a condition known as ___ ___
down syndrome
Studying twins in adoptive homes attempts to rule out ___ influences.
A ___ is a nerve cell
If the ___ sheaths of many neurons are not fully developed, within the first year babies have problems walking and performing other acts
when a section of a neuron is stimulated by neighboring neurons, the cell membrane becomes ____ to sodium ions
The phase following firing during which a neuron's action potential cannot be triggered is called the ____ period
when the neural impulse reaches the axon terminal, the vesicles release varying amounts of ___.
Indiv's who are deficient in dopamine would exhibit __ movement, because it is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in voluntary movement
In an emergency, ____ is(are) very abundant in our brain and body
Deficiencies in ___ have been linked to anxiety, mood disorders, eatin disorders, and insominia
The brain and spinal cord make up the ___ ___ system
central nervous
if you get knocked unconscious by being involved in a serious accident. lack of respnse may indicate injuries to the __ __
spinal cord
what happens when someone has a damaged hippocampus?
he/she would be able to recall old memories not new ones
The auditory cortex lies within the ___ lobe.
If a person is born with an incomplete corpus callosum, we would expect to see deficiencies in what aspect of the brain functioning?
transference of info to one hemisphere to another
The prenatal life support system includes the ___ ____ and ____
amniotic sac, placenta, and umbilical chord
What event causes embryos develp into males?
testies form and produce androgen
A neonate is tested for grasp, startle and sucking responses. These are measures of ____.
In research with 2 month old infants you would probably find they prefer what sort of visual pattern?
a human face
an infant does not receive tactile stimulation which is impaired? sense of comfort and security, learning and communication or activation of reflexes
all the above
competent children tend ot have parents who use a ____ parenting style
____ is defined as an enduring emotional tie.
in ainsworth procedure a infant is __ attached when an infant mildly protest his mother departure, seeks reunion with her and comforted by her return
according to Erikson, the infant parent relationship can affect issues associated with __ during the first year of life
Harry Harlow(1959) demonstrated that attachment in rhesus monkeys was related to __ __
contact comfort
Formal operations allow children to think ___
The __ __ approach to cognitive development studies how children store, retrieve, and manipulate info
information processing
Piget's term for a pattern of action or a mental structure that is involved in acquiring or organizing knowledge is a
According to erikson the major challenge of adolescence is the creation of __ __.
ego identity
in late adulthood physical decline is experienced in sensory systems such as vision and smell, reaction time or immune system functioning.
all the above
Good general health, exercising daily and attending life long learning classes according to Schaie contribute to __ functioning
according to Kubler-ross the __ stage of dying is when you approach death with a quiet acceptance of the invitable, a peace that is devoid of feeling
the final
the process by which sensations are organized to form inner representations of the world is called ___
the difference threshold for light is defined as _____
the smallest difference in intensity required to percieve a difference in intensity 50% of the time
the background noise,the perceiver's motivation, ant the sharpness of the perceiver's sensory system are among the variables incorapated in ___ theory
signal detection
what sensory system is dominant for most individuals?
what is a photoreceptor?
cells that respond to light
what is the source of all color?
the laws of __ organization in gestalt pshchology refers to the way humans integrate bits and pieces of sensory stimulation into meaningul whole exp's
the gestalt rule describing the perceptual tendency to see objects that are near each other as belongings to a set is termed ___.
the gestalt rule describing the perceptual tendency to see like objects as belonging together is termed ___.
relative size, interposition, or texture or monocular cues used by artists to make objects appear to be far away in their drawings.
all the above
depth perception is enhanced when each eye projects an image of an object to the brain from a different perspective. this cue for depth is called __.
retinal desparitive
frequency of sound waves determines __, and amplitude determines ___.
frequency of sound waves determines pitch, and amplitude determines loudness.
place theory advances the idea that pitch discrimiation depends upon what?
area of the basilar membrane that vibrates to the cell.
frequency theory of pitch discrimination predicts that high-pitched sounds fire __ often and low pitched sounds fire __ often
high-pitched sounds fire more and low-pitched sounds fire less
the receptor neurons for smell are located in the _ __ __
o factory membrane
uncle bob had brain surgery last week. you were told that he was only given a local anesthetic. how could this be?
there are no nerve endings for pain in the brain
the view that pain messages may not get through to the brain when the switchboard that transmits pain messages becomes flooded is termed __ theory.
possible solutions for chronic pain include which of the following? relaxation training exercises, distraction, or fantasy hypnosis
all the above
when we say that we are conscious of seeing somenthing or hearing a sound, we are refering to consciousness as __ __
sensory awareness
according to freud, some impulses and painful memories are so unacceptable that we exclude them from awareness. he said we __ them.
according to freud, the ___ contains events are unavailable to us under almost all circumstances.
the totality of our impressions, thoughts, and feelings that makes up our conscious existence is calle the ___.
the self
the __ state is when consciousness is referred as not being sleep, a trance, meditation, or any other distorted state of perception
which of the following is considered an altered state of consciousness? Sleep, hypnotic trance, or drug-induced perceptions
all the above
the amount of sleep tends to go up during periods of stress, in an episode of depression, or during an increase in a person's workload.
all the above
what effect does deprivation of REM sleep have on human memory?
interferes with memory
which of the following is an explanation of the phenomenon of trance. dissociation, role playing, or narrow focusing of attention.
all the above
using ones conscious to alter ones relationship to the world, suspending thinking and allowing the world to fade or a method of altered foucs explains meditation
all the above
in a study by neal miller rats were stimulated in the pleasure centers when their heart rates were lowered or raised. this is example of __ training
bio feedback
heart rate, blood pressure, or sweat in the palm of the hand once thought to be beyond voluntary control, can be changed with feedback
all the above
the most popular drug on high-school and college campuses in the usa is __
cirrhosis of the liver, cardiovascular disorders, or cancer are conditions linked to chronic drinking of alcohol
all the above
smoking during pregnancy can lead to a higher risk of miscarriage, pre-term births, or low birth weight.
all the above
according to behaviorist __ is any relatively permanent change in an orgainism's behavior that occurs because of experience.
Ivan Pavlov provvided evidence that reflexes can be learned through ___
the __ theory of classical conditioning suggests that learning occurs only when the conditioned stimulus provides info about the unconditioned stimulus
this question is to long. its about systematic desensitization
systematic desensitization
in operant condiotioning an orgainism learns to respond because of the ___ of the behavior
Any stimulus that, when presented, increases the likelihood that an operant will continue is called a(n) __ __.
positive reinforcer
Any stimulus that, when removed, increases the lkelihood that an operant will continue is called a ___ __
negative reinforer .
spontaneous recovery describes the event in which an orgainism performs a previously ___ response
punishment is not very effective because it suppresess the unacceptable behavior, does not teach correct reponses, or can create anger and hostility
all the above
reinforcing successive steps towards a behavioral goal is called __
describe token economy.
reinforcing behavior with something like poker chips that can be exchanged for a pleasurable commidity
cognitive psychologist use structures and schemas, templates and information processing, or association and reinforcement.
all the above
a rat that was allowed to roam freely in a maze without reinforcement, will later find food at the end of the maze faster than a rat that never saw the maze before because of cognitive...
the significance of Tolman's research on latent learning was that.
rats could learn a maze in the absence of reinforcement, suggesting they acquired a cognitive map.
bandura's research suggest that we can learn through __ learning.
What do studies of children and adults who view violence in the media reveal in terms of whether they are more or less likely to be aggressive compared to indiv's who do not view violence?
later show more agression than those not exposed
all the above question
all the above question

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