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Side ASide B
What type of epithelium lines the lumen of the trachea?
What are the two modifications of the epithelium (pseduostratified)?
Cilia and Goblet Cells
What moves dust and mucus away from lungs?
What produces mucus?
What is the effect of cigarette smoking on the cilia?
Cigarette smoking inhibits and destroys the ciliary action
Is there a deficiency in the hyaline cartilage of the tracheal rings?
What is the functional reason for this deficiency in the hyaline cartilage of the tracheal rings?
To allow easy passage of food in the esophagus
What characteristics make alveoli ideal for gas exchange?
Single layer of epithelial cells on the wall of the alveoli, and large surface area for diffusion of gases
Made of simple squamous epithelium of the alveoli on one side (alveolar wall) and simple squamous epithelium (endothelium) of the capillary on the other side (capillary wall) and a...
The respiratory membrane
- What is the driving force that...
Oxygen diffuses down its pressure gradient, from a higher partial pressure region in the alveoli to lower partial pressure region in the pulmonary capillary. ...
- Activation of the diaphragm and the external intercostal...
There is a resultant increase in the thoracic volume from the contractions of the muscles. When the diaphragm contracts, it flattens out and increases the superior- inferior dimension...
- At the end of a normal inspiration the diaphragm...
The thoracic volume decreases and the pressure increases.
- The presence of a partial vacuum between the plural...
The partial vaccum created in the pleural space is destroyed and the lung on the damaged side collapses.
Maximum volume of air that can be expired after a tidal expiration.
Expiratory reserve volume, 1200 ml
Volume of air corresponding to TV + IRV + ERV
Vital capacity 4800 ml
Volume of air inspired and expired during normal breathing
Tidal volume 500 ml
Volume of air remaining in the lungs at the end of maximal expiration
Residual volume 1200 ml
Maximal volume of air that can be inspired at the end of a tidal inspiration
Inspiratory reserve volume 3100 ml
- How might vital capacity be different in...
Vital capacity in a smoker would be lower than the non smoker
is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder characterized by destruction of alveolar walls, enlarged air spaces,loss of elasticity of lung tissues...
Is a inflammatory lung disease characterized by constriction of the airway passages, swelling of the mucosa and excessive mucus secretion
is a chronic obstructive lung disorder characterized by inflammation of the chronic bronchitis
What do astmha, emhysma, and chronic bronchitis do to the vital capacity values of the lungs?
They are lower than normal values
impaired air flow into and out of lungs due to narrowing or blockage of the airways
obstructive pulmonary disease
reduction in the volume of air that the lungs can hold. It may be due to decrease...
restrictive pulmonary disease
16 How is the FEV1/FVC ratio used to differentiate between obstructive and restrictive...
The FEV1 / FVC ratio will be lower than normal values in obstructive lung disease and normal or greater...
How does the position of the right kidney compare with the position of the left kidney in humans?
The position of the right kidney is at a lower level compared to the left kidney. This is because of the large liver.
smooth membrane, tightly adherent to the kidney surface
area of cortical tissue lying between medullary pyramids
portion of the kidney that containing mostly collecting ducts
a cup shaped extension of the renal pelvis that encircles the apex of a pyramid
superficial region of kidney tissue
basin like area of the kidney that contains the ureter
- Explain why urinalysis...
Urine may contain normal and abnormal constituents. Performing an urinalysis may identify the abnormal constituent and thereby indicate a pathological...
After blood leaves the segmental artery it enters..
Interlobar artery--> Arcuate artery--> Cortical radiate artery
from the cortical radiate artery where does blood go
Afferent arteriole-->Glomerulus--> Efferent arteriole--> Peritubular capillaries