Pre Lab 9 And 10- Respiratory System/ Urinary System

The Physiology And Histology Of The Respiratory System And The Urinary System
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What type of epithelium lines the lumen of the trachea?
Pseudostratified epithelium
What are the two modifications of the epithelium (pseduostratified)?
Cilia and Goblet Cells
What moves dust and mucus away from lungs?
What produces mucus?
Goblet Cells
What is the effect of cigarette smoking on the cilia?
Cigarette smoking inhibits and destroys the ciliary action
Is there a deficiency in the hyaline cartilage of the tracheal rings?
What is the functional reason for this deficiency in the hyaline cartilage of the tracheal rings?
To allow easy passage of food in the esophagus
What characteristics make alveoli ideal for gas exchange?
Single layer of epithelial cells on the wall of the alveoli, and large surface area for diffusion of gases
Made of simple squamous epithelium of the alveoli on one side (alveolar wall) and simple squamous epithelium (endothelium) of the capillary on the other side (capillary wall) and a fused basement membrane of the two in the middle.
The respiratory membrane
  1. What is the driving force that moves oxygen from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillary blood?
Oxygen diffuses down its pressure gradient, from a higher partial pressure region in the alveoli to lower partial pressure region in the pulmonary capillary.
  1. Activation of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles begins the inspiratory process. What results from the contraction of these muscles and how is this accomplished?
There is a resultant increase in the thoracic volume from the contractions of the muscles. When the diaphragm contracts, it flattens out and increases the superior- inferior dimension and when the external intercostals contract, it raises the rib cage and increases the anterior-posterior and lateral dimensions.
  1. At the end of a normal inspiration the diaphragm relaxes and the ribs return to their pre-inspiratory position. What is the result of these muscular changes in terms of thoracic volume and pressure?
The thoracic volume decreases and the pressure increases.
  1. The presence of a partial vacuum between the plural membranes is integral to normal
breathing movements. What happens if an opening is made into the chest cavity, as with a puncture wound? How is this condition treated medically?
The partial vaccum created in the pleural space is destroyed and the lung on the damaged side collapses. This is treated by inserting a chest tube and removing the air and closing off the wound.
Maximum volume of air that can be expired after a tidal expiration.
Expiratory reserve volume, 1200 ml
Volume of air corresponding to TV + IRV + ERV
Vital capacity 4800 ml
Volume of air inspired and expired during normal breathing
Tidal volume 500 ml
Volume of air remaining in the lungs at the end of maximal expiration
Residual volume 1200 ml
Maximal volume of air that can be inspired at the end of a tidal inspiration
Inspiratory reserve volume 3100 ml
  1. How might vital capacity be different in a smoker compared to a non-smoker?
Vital capacity in a smoker would be lower than the non smoker
is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder characterized by destruction of alveolar walls, enlarged air spaces,loss of elasticity of lung tissues and hyperinflation of the alveoli.
Is a inflammatory lung disease characterized by constriction of the airway passages, swelling of the mucosa and excessive mucus secretion
is a chronic obstructive lung disorder characterized by inflammation of the airways in lungs and excessive mucus production.
chronic bronchitis
What do astmha, emhysma, and chronic bronchitis do to the vital capacity values of the lungs?
They are lower than normal values
impaired air flow into and out of lungs due to narrowing or blockage of the airways
obstructive pulmonary disease
reduction in the volume of air that the lungs can hold. It may be due to decrease in the elasticity of the lung tissues ,skeletal abnormalities of the thoracic region etc.
restrictive pulmonary disease
16 How is the FEV1/FVC ratio used to differentiate between obstructive and restrictive lung disease?
The FEV1 / FVC ratio will be lower than normal values in obstructive lung disease and normal or greater than normal values in restrictive lung disease.
How does the position of the right kidney compare with the position of the left kidney in humans?
The position of the right kidney is at a lower level compared to the left kidney. This is because of the large liver.
smooth membrane, tightly adherent to the kidney surface
renal capsule
area of cortical tissue lying between medullary pyramids
renal column
portion of the kidney that containing mostly collecting ducts
a cup shaped extension of the renal pelvis that encircles the apex of a pyramid
minor calyx
superficial region of kidney tissue
basin like area of the kidney that contains the ureter
renal pelvis
  1. Explain why urinalysis is a routine part of any physical examination
Urine may contain normal and abnormal constituents. Performing an urinalysis may identify the abnormal constituent and thereby indicate a pathological condition.
After blood leaves the segmental artery it enters..
Interlobar artery--> Arcuate artery--> Cortical radiate artery
from the cortical radiate artery where does blood go
Afferent arteriole-->Glomerulus--> Efferent arteriole--> Peritubular capillaries

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