Poly Cardia Pharm Respiratory System (Final)

118 cards

Poly Cardia Pharm  Respiratory System (Final)


 
  
Created Mar 10, 2012
by
vtorre01

 

 
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1
Ventilation (Respiration)
 
movement of air in and out of lungs (respiratory system)
2
external (respiration)
 
gas exchange between air in lungs and blood
3
transport of oxygen (respiration)
 
transport of oxygen and CO2 Carbon dioxide in blood
4
internal (respiration)
 
gas exchange between the blood and tissue
5
gas exchange (Respiratory system functions)
 
oxygen enters blood and carbon dioxide (CO2) leaves
6
regulation of blood pH (RS function)
 
altered by changing blood carbon dioxide levels
7
voice production (RS functions)
 
movement of air past vocal folds makes sound and speech
8
olfaction (RS functions)
 
smell occurs when airborne molecules are drawn into nasal cavity
9
protection (RS functions)
 
against micro organisms by preventing entry and removing them from respiratory
10
upper tract (RS Divisions)
 
Nose
pharynx
associated structures
11
lower tract (RS Division)
 
larynx
trachea
bronchi
lungs
tubing within the lungs
12
vestibule
(Nose and Nasal Cavities-nasal)
(cavity from nares to conchae)
 
Just inside the nares
13
Hard palate
(Nose and Nasal Cavities-nasal)
(cavity from nares to conchae)
 
Floor of nasal cavity
14
 Nasal  Septum
(Nose and Nasal Cavities-nasal)
(cavity from nares to conchae)
 
Partition diving cavity.
Anterior cartilage: Posterior vomer and perpendicular plate of...
15
Conchae
 (Nose and Nasal Cavities-nasal)
(cavity from nares to conchae)
 
Bony ridges on lateral walls with meatuses between openings to paranasal sinuses and to nasolacrimal...
16
Functions of the Nasal Cavity
 
Passageway for air
Cleans the air
Humidifies, Warms air
Smell
Along with Paranasal...
17
Pharynx
 
Common opening for digestive and respiratory systems
18
Pharynx (Three regions )
1.) Nasopharynx
 
Mucous and debris is swallowed,
Openings of Eustachian (auditory) tubes
Floor is soft...
19
Pharynx (Three regions )
2.) Oropharynx
 
Shared with digestive system

20
Pharynx (Three regions )
3.) Laryngopharynx
 
Epiglottis to esophagus
21
Epiglottis  to esophagus is called? Pharynx (Three regions )
 
Laryngopharynx
22
Vocal folds are? (Function of Larynx)
 
True chords

23
True Chords are? (Function of Larynx)
 
Vocal folds
24
Vestibular folds are? (Function of Larynx)
 
False Chords

25
False Chords are? (Function of Larynx)
 
Vestibular folds
26
Functions of Larynx
 
-Maintain an open passageway for air movement; thyroid and cricoid cartilages
-Epiglottis...
27
Trachea is?
 
Dense regular tissue and smooth muscle;
Supported by 15-20 hyaline cartilage
C-shaped...
28
Inner Lining (of Trachea)
 
Mucus traps debris
Cilia push it superiorly toward larynx and pharynx
29
Carina  (of Trachea)
 
Membrane of Carina especially sensitive to irritation and inhaled objects initiate the cough...
30
Trachea ( Divides to Form)
 
Left and Right Primary Bronchi

31
Bronchopulmonary Segments is?
 
Tertiary Bronchi

32
Defined by tertiary bronchi
 
Bronchopulmonary segments
33
This membrane especially sensitive to irritation and inhaled objects initiate the cough reflex.
 
Carina  (of Trachea)
34
List the Order in which the Tracheobronchial Tree flows & Conducting Zone
 
-Trachea --divides  into 2 Primary Bronchi
-Primary Bronchi --divides into Secondary...
35
Cartilage
 (Tracheobronchial Tree flows & Conducting Zone
 
Holds tube system open; smooth muscle controls tube diameter. As tubes become smaller, smaller...
36
What holds the tube system open: smooth muscle controls tube diameter.
 
Cartilage
37
Site for gas Exchange
 
Respiratory Zone
38
Principal organs of respiration.
 
Two Lungs
39
Space enclosed by thoracic wall and diaphragm.
 
Thoracic cavity
40
Dome shaped with base of dome attached to inner circumference of inferior thoracic cage.
 
Diaphragm
41
Respiratory Zone: Respiratory Bronchi-oles to Alveoli
Respiratory...
 
-Respiratory bronchi-oles-- branch form terminal bronchi-oles
-Respiratory Bronchioles --have...
42
Quiet Respiration
 
-Accounts for 2/3 of increase in size of thoracic Volume.
-Inferior movement of Central...
43
Accounts for 2/3 of increase in size of thoracic Volume.
-Inferior movement of Central...
 
Quiet Respiration
44
Quiet Expiration
 
-Relaxation of diaphragm and
-External intercoastals with contraction of abdominal muscles
45
Relaxation of diaphragm and external intercoastals with contraction of abdominal muscles
 
Quiet Expiration
46
A measure of the ease with which lungs and thorax expand.
 
Compliance
47
Amount of air inspired expired with each breath. AT rest: 500ml
 
Tidal Volume
48
Compliance
 
A measure of the ease with which lungs and thorax expand.
49
Deposition of inelastic fibers in lung (emphysema)
 
Pulmonary fibrosis


50
Measures volume of air that move into and of respiration system?
 
Spirometry
51
Tool used in Spirometry
 
Spirometer



52
Amount of air inspired or expired with each breath. At rest 500ml

 
Tidal Volume
53
Amount of air that can be inspired forcefully after inspiration of the tidal volume (3000 mL...
 
Inspiratory reserve Volume
54
Volume still remaining in respiratory passages and lungs after most forceful expiration (1200mL)
 
Residual volume

55
Amount that can be forcefully expired after expiration of the tidal volume(100mL at rest)
 
Expiratory reserve Volume


56
Tidal volume + Inspiratory reserve volume
 
Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
57
Expiratory reserve volume + residual volume.
 
Functional residual capacity (FRC)
58
Inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume.
 
Vital Capacity (VC)
59
Inspiratory reserve volume +tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume + residual volume.
 
Total lung Capacity (TLC)
60
Minute ventilation (measured in Lpm)
 
Total air moved into and out of (Lung) respiratory system each minute (TV x RR) (total Volume...
61
Respiratory Rate
 
Number of breaths taken per minute
62
Formed by
Nasal Cavity
Pharynx
 
Anatomic Dead Space
63
Anatomic dead space plus the Volume of any Alveoli in which gas exchange is less than normal...
 
Physiological Dead Space
64
Volume of air available for gas exchange/minute
 
Alveolar Ventilation (Va)
65
Tool used to show relationship between SaO2 and PaO2
 
oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve
66
Cessation of breathing
 
Apnea
67
Causes decrease in blood PaCo2 levels.
Peripheral vasodilation...
 
Hyperventalation
68
Too much CO2
 
Hypercapnia
69
Lower than Normal CO2
 
Hypocapnia
70
Specialized neurons that respond to changes in chemicals in solution.
 
Chemoreceptors
71
This detects level of CO2 and tells you when to breathe. (Primary)
 
Central chemoreceptors
72
Responds to changes in PaCO2
 
Carotid
73
This detects level of O2 changes and tells you when to breathe (Secondary)
 
Peripheral chemo-receptors
74
Responds to changes in Pa O2
 
Aortic bodies
75
Small change in carbon dioxide in blood triggers a large increase in rate and depth of respiration...
 
Effect of Carbon Dioxide CO2
76
Greater than normal amount of carbon dioxide
 
Hypercapnia
77
Lower than normal amount of oxygen
 
Hypocapnia
78
Chronic disease caused by increased reactivity of the tracheobronchial tree to various stimuli
 
Asthma
79
This is used to treat Asthma in children and is a broncholdilator; however, this use is not...
 
Isoproterenol
80
Agents that widen the diameter of brochial tubes.
 
Brochodilators
81
What is PaO2 value?
 
90-100 mmHg
82
What is PaCO2 value?
 
35-45 mmHG
83
What is pH Value?
 
7.35 - 7.45 pH Normal Range
84
What is HCO3
 
22-26 mEq/L
85
What is O2 saturation value?
 
90% -100%
86
What are Three Clinical goals of Oxygen Therapy?
 
1 Treat hypoxemia
2 Decrease work of breathing
3 Decrease myocardial work
87
What are the TWO types of systems for oxygen administration?
 
High flow systems such as ventilators and T-pieces for Tracheostomy
-Low flow systems such...
88
Are there any contraindications for Oxygen?
 
--NO
89
What are 3 precautions with oxygen?
 
1 -CO2 retainers
2- Fire Hazard is increased
3- Risk of bacterial contamination associated...
90
What are 2 Complication with Oxygen?
 
-Nasal Dryness
-Respiratory depression
91
What are 3 oxygen titration techniques?
 
1- Based on sleep lab policy
2-Begin titrating .5-1 liter per minute (lpm)
3- Keep SpO2 ...
92
What chronic disease is classified according to its allergy, exercised induced, or infections...
 
Asthma
93
What are 2 sub classes of brochodilators?
 
-Xanthines
-Theophylline
94
What are 2 uses for Beta 2 Adrenergic Agonist?
 
-Relieve bronchospsm of Asthma
-Treat brochitis
95
What 2 Advers Effects of Bet 2 - Adrenergic Agonist?
 
_Nausea
-Vomiting
96
What are 4 effects of Beta 2 Adrenergic Agonist on Sleep Architecture?
 
SOL - increase
SE   - Decrease
TRT - Decrease
TST - Decrease
97
Drugs chemically related to caffeine that dilate bronchioles by relaxing smooth muscles are?
 
Xanthines
98
Name 1 main USE for Xanthines
 
Prevent Asthma
99
What are 2 Adverse Effects of Xanthines?
 
-Nausea
-Vomiting
100
What are 4 effects of Xanthines on Sleep Architecture?
 
SOL - increase
SE   - Decrease
TRT - Decrease
TST - Decrease
101
What are 4 effects of Theophylline on Sleep Architecture?
 
SOL - increase
SE   - Decrease
TRT - Decrease
TST - Decrease
102
What are uses for Corticosteroids?
 
-Treat Allergic conditions
-Treat respiratory conditions
103
What are 2 Adverse effect of Corticosteroids?
 
-Nausea
-Vomiting
104
What are 1 Uses of Mat Cell Stabilizers?
 
Prevents Asthama

105
What are 4 Effects of Mast Cell Stabilizers on Sleep Architecture?
 
SOL - increase
SE   - Decrease
TRT - Decrease
TST - Decrease
106
Name 1 Uses for Antitussives?
 
To suppress non productive cough
107
What are 2 Adverse Effects of Antitussives?
 
-Nausea
-Dizziness
108
What are 2 Uses for Expectorants and Mucolytics?
 
-Treat Brochopulmonary disease
-Treat Cystic Fibrosis
109
Name 1 Use for Decongestants
 
-Relieve Nasal Congestion
110
What are 2 Adverse Effects of Decongestants?
 
-Headache
-Dizziness
111
What are 4 Effects of Decongestants on Sleep Architecture?
 
SOL - increase
SE   - Decrease
TRT - Decrease
TST - Decrease
112
Any condition resulting in hypoventilation can cause what?
 
-Respiratory Acidosis
113
Which has the faster response :
 Renal Buffer or Respiratory Buffer?
 
Respiratory Buffer
(Kidneys slow to the party)
114
Any condition resulting in hyperventilation can cause what?
 
Respiratory Acidosis
115
How do you correct respiratory acidosis?
 
By increasing ventilation
116
What is treatment for respiratory alkalosis?
 
Resolve the underlying problem
117
Examples of Metabolic Acidosis are?
 
-Diarrhea
-Renal Failure
-Diabetic Ketoacidosis
118
Examples of Metabolic Alkalosis are?
 
-Vomiting
-Gastric Suctioning

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