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Political Science #1 "We The People" By T. Patterson


"We The People" By Patterson Vocab Words Chapter 1
  
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political culture
 
a term that refers to the characteristic and deep-seated beliefs of a particular people about goverment and politics
Liberty
 
is the principle that individuals should be free to act and think as they choose, provided they do not infringe unreasonably on the freedom and well-being of others.
Individualism
 
is a commitment to personal initiative and self-sufficiency; it rests on the belief that people should be free of undue government rrestraints as they seek to advance themselves econmically
equality
 
the notion that all individuals are equal in their moral worth anf therby entitled to equal treatment under law
self government
 
the principle that the people are the ultimate source of govering authority and should have a voice in their governing
politics
 
is the process through which a society settles its conflicts and decides the politics by which it will be governed
Political conflicts has two primary sources
 

1. Scarcity even the riches societies dont have enough to money to provide for everyone desires conflicts over distrubution of resources like schools having equal funding.
2. Difference in values people see issues differently because of the difference in background themselves and interests
social contract
 
in which ordinary people surrender the freedom they would have in state of nature in the return for the protection thata sovereign ruler can provide
democracy
 
is a form of government in which people govern, either directly or through elected representatives. Very different from Oligarchy
Oligarchy
 
in which controls the rests of the small group, such as top-ranking military officers or few wealthy families
autocracy
 
in which control rests with a single individual, such as king or dictator
Constitutionalism
 
holds that there are limits on the rightful pwer of gobernment over citizens
Authoritarian govts
 
openly repress their politicalopponants as a means of staying in power, although theydo so in varying degrees.
totalitarian govts
 
meaning they assert complete dominance over individuals and the institutions of society.
Capitalism
 
holds government should interfere with the economy as little as possible
socialism
 
assigns government a large role in the means of production, in economic decision making, and in providing for the economoc security for an individual
communism
 
characterized the former Soviet Union and is practiced today in North Korea and a few other countries, the government owns most or all major industires and also takes responsibilitiey for overall managment of the economy, including prodution quotas, supply, and pricing
public policy
 
a decison by the govt to pursue a particular course of action
power
 
refers to the ablity of persons, interests, or institutions to control public policy
authority
 
govt officials excercise power this way defined as the right to make binding decisions
Majoritarianism
 
is the notion that the majority should prevail not only in the counting of votes but also in the deteremination of public policy
majoritarianism
 
holds numerical majorities determine issues of policy
pluralism
 
holds the policies are effectively decided through power wielded by special interests that dominates particular policy areas
elitism
 
holds that policy is controlled by a small number of well-positioned, highly influential individuals
Bureaucratic rule
 
Holds that policy is controlled by well-placed adminisrators within the govt bureaucracy
Political system
 
Parts are separate but connects with each other affecting how they performs.
Constitutional Framework
 
Includes provisions for limited govt (e.g., checks and balances), represents govt, civil liberties, and civil rights
Inputs
 
include public opinion, voting and other forms of participation, political parties, campaigns, interests groups and the news media
Political Institutions
 
Major institutions of govt: Congress, the presidency, the judicary, and the bureaucracy
Outputs
 
include laws, programs, and other actions in areas such as economic policy, foreign policy, and defense policy

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