Political Parties, Campaigns, And Elections

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The key term in the definition of a political party is:
label, to give a candidate party identification
What is true about political parties in the United States?
Parties today are relatively weak, but they are not weak in all areas of the country
Party identification among voters is on way of gauging the strength of a party. Another cited by the text is the:
strength of the organization that recruits and campaigns for candidates
The federal system goes a long way toward explaining why U.S. parties are __________ than their European counterparts
more decentralized
One reason why political parties in the United States today are weaker than in Europe is that, in the United States,
party leaders do not typically select people to run for office
In most states, candidates for office are chosen by:
primary elections
In Europe, almost the only way a person can become a candidate is by
being nominated by party leaders
What role do political parties play in the lives of most Americans?
most Americans separate political parties from other aspects of their lives
George Washington's view of parties may have been influenced by
the constant quarreling between Hamilton and Jefferson in his cabinet
Why should George Washington, among other Founders of our nation, have been so opposed to political parties?
because disputes over policies and elections where not easily separated from disputes over government legitimacy
The founders saw political parties as
factions motivated by ambition and self-interest
The first organized political party in American history was
made up of the followers of Jefferson
Some were so distraught by the election of Thomas Jefferson that they
organized to have New England secede from the Union
During the founding period of U.S. history, political parties could best be described as
small coalitions based more on geography and class than on common economic interests
According to the text, when did political parties in the United States develop a comprehensive organizational form and appeal?
From the time of President Jackson to the Civil War
The first Republican party, with its base of support in the South, was organized in the 1790s by
Thomas Jefferson
The Federalist party could not compete effectively in national elections because
it had such a limited sectional and class base
National party conventions were developed as a reform of
party caucuses
In the Jacksonian era, for the first time a party system was built
from the bottom up
Prior to 1824, presidential candidates were nominated by
caucuses comprising of members of Congress
Party conventions emerged during the Jacksonian era as a means of
giving some measure of local control to the presidential nominating process
The first Convention in American history was that of the _________ party
What is correct about the modern Republican party?
It emerged as a major party only after the Civil War
One effect of the geographic split in parties that occurred as a consequence of the Civil War was the
emergence of strong party factions such as the mugwumps
The ____________, a faction of the Republican party, were opposed to the patronage system and feared the influx of immigrants who could be incorporated into the political machine
The progressives favored all of the following except
better relations with business
The progressive movement reduced the level of political corruption but ultimately failed to
solve the problem of how to select candidates
Procedures such as the initiative and the referendum arose as efforts to give
citizens a direct say in making laws
Scholars have identified ______ critical or realigning periods in American politics
The three clearest cases of critical or realigning elections seem to be
C: 1865, 1896, and 1932
Which of the following were major issues in the three clearest cases of critical or realigning periods?
slavery and economics
The national convention meets every ____ year to nominate a presidential candidate
Between the national conventions party affairs are managed by a ______ made up of delegates from each state and territory.
national committee
In Congress each party has a ___________ that helps members of Congress who are running for re-election or would-be members seeking election
congressional campaign committee
This person manages the day-to-day work of the party
national chairman
Beginning in the 1960s, the _____ became more bureaucratized, while the ________ became more factionalized.
Republican party, Democratic party
Who selects the time and place of the national convention and issues a call for the convention?
A party's national committee
The number of convention delegates from each state, along with the rules under which they are chosen, is determined by
the party's national committee
Which of the following statements about the formula by which delegates to the nominating conventions are appointed is correct?
The Democrats and Republicans use different formulas
The formula for the selection of delegates to the Republican national convention generally stresses the importance of
Throughout the 1970s, the general thrust of the Democratic rules commissions considering delegate selection was to
weaken the influence of party leaders and enlarge the role of the rank and file
The Republicans changed the goal of their national party to the election of candidates while the Democrats sought to make their party
achieve a fairer distribution of power
Democratic rule changes were drafted in 1972 by a commission headed by
George McGovern
The Hunt commission's changes in the Democratic party rules were designed to
increase the influence of party leaders
The term "superdelegate" refers to
elected officials and party leaders who are not required to pledge themselves in advance to a presidential candidate
All of the following statements concerning the delegates to the 2004 conventions are correct except:
More of the Democrats were male
Over 40 percent of the delegates to the conventions of both parties
were born again Christians
The winner-reward systems of delegate distribution were banned in the campaign of
The 1992 Democratic National Committee penalized states that violated the rules with what percentage loss of their national delegates?
25 percent
The three areas of rule-changes approved by the 1992 Democratic National Committee were
rules violation penalty, winner-reward systems, proportional representation
according to the text, the role of national conventions has been transformed by party rules into a
place where delegates ratify decisions made by voters
Within both major parties, it is the _______ level that has most obviously declined
Party machines
are characterized by a high degree of leadership control over member activity
The classical machine-type party was developed and perfected
in the nineteenth century before the large-scale Irish and Italian immigrations
Old-style political machines counted heavily on the support of
civil servants
Unlike political machines, ideological parties tend to be
The ideological groups, or reform clubs, of the 1950s and 1960s gave rise to ideological parties composed of
single-issue activists
According to Barbara Mikulski, the training grounds for national political activists today are
social movements
People can join a party for reasons other than patronage. The text cites all of the following other reasons except
to join a delegating committee (caucus groups)
Party organizations based on their members' enjoyment of the sociability of politics are referred to as
solidary parties
The political involvement of the United Auto Workers (UAW) in Detroit provides an example of a(n)
sponsored party
An example of an organization that sponsors a local party is
the United Auto Workers (UAW) in Detroit
Today, a person wanting to win an election will most often seek the support of
a personal following
Which of the following statements about the traditional party organization in the United States is correct?
it exists, but only in a few states
Which of the following statements about the two-party system is correct?
The United States is one of the few countries with such a system
To win in a plurality system such as that in the United States, a candidate must
gather more votes than anyone else
The plurality electoral system in the United States means that
every party must be a broad-based coalition
Why should elections based on a plurality system discourage new parties from forming?
Because under this winner-take-all system no incentive is given for finishing second (or lower)
The most dramatic example of the winner-take-all principle in the US electoral system is
electoral college
The two-party system has worked in the US, but not in Europe, because
Americans agree on enough issues to form broad coalitions
The most recent independent candidate for president who was able to get on the ballot in every state was
Ross Perot
Which of the following statements about minor parties in the United States is correct?
They were once discouraged by the election laws of many states
The platform of the Free Love party (a fictitious party) is, as you might guess, free love. This party is most likely a(n)
one-issue party
The Libertarian and Socialist parties in the United States are examples of
ideological parties
George Wallace's American Independent party was an example of a(n)
factional party
The Populist party is an example of a(n)
economic protest party
An example of an economic protest party is the
Populist party
Which of the following kinds of minor parties tends to endure the longest?
The kind of minor party that has probably had the greatest influence on public policy is the
factional party
Many strong social movements in the United states (e.g. the antiwar movement of the late 1960s) never produced a significant third party. One reason for this is that
dissident elements were able to influence elections through party primaries and national conventions
Even though minor parties have had little success in national elections, they have played an important role in many elections by
influencing the public policy positions of the two major parties
In the days when party conventions were heavily influenced by party leaders and elected officials, it was relatively easy to ignore
the policy preferences of dissident factions
At party conventions in recent years, the ________ has (have) become increasingly important
policy interests of the party
National convention delegates, compared to their respective party members, tend to be
more liberal if they are Democrats, more conservative if they are Republicans
A meeting of party followers at which convention delegates are picked is known as a
The makeup of state party caucuses can best be characterized as
highly partisan
Compared to primary voters, members of causcuses are more likely to
support the most ideological candidate
An example of how the partisan makeup of state party caucuses can result in the choice of the most ideological candidate was the success of
Jesse Jackson in the 1988 Democratic party caucuses
The typical convention delegate- Democratic or Republican- can best be characterizes as a(n)
issue-oriented amateur
The disadvantage of the new primary system that has developed in the US is that it
increases the chances that the party will nominate a candidate who is unappealing to the average voter
Why should the Democrats have been so unsuccessful in winning the presidency before 1992 at the same time that they were so successful in winning congressional seats?
Because their presidential candidates tended to be out of step with voters on issues of taxation and social policy
Since 1972, ideological differences between convention delegates and rank-and-file party voters have been greatest among
How can the difference between the two major parties in the US best be characterized?
There are large policy differences among activists and much smaller ones among the rank and file

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