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Poli 100 Book Quiz 2 1/2

The Book Quiz For Chapters 6-10 In AM GOV Losco Baker. Poli 100. This Is For Chapters 6 And 7.
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focus groups
small gatherings of individuals used to test ideas before marketing
elites
individuals in a position of authority, often those with a higher level of education than the population at large
public opinion
opinions held by private individuals that governments find it prudent to heed
political culture
the dominant values and beliefs of a political community
straw poll
an unscientific survey of popular views
political socialization
the process by which individuals adopt the attitudes, values, beliefs, and opinions of their political culture
life cycle effects
the impact of age-related factors in the formation of political attitudes, opinions, and beliefs 
generational effects
the impact of events experienced by a generational cohort on the formation of common political orientations
cohort
the members of one's own generation
gender gap
systematic variation in political opinions that exists between males and females
direction
the attribute of an individual's opinion that indicates a preference for or against a particular issue
salience
the attribute of an individual's opinion that indicates how central it is to her or his daily concerns
stability
the attribute of an individual's opinion that measures how consistently it is held
informational support
the attribute of an individual's opinion that measures his or her amount of knowledge concerning the issue
benchmark survey
a campaign poll that measures a candidate's strength at the time of entrance into the electoral race
trial heat survey
a campaign poll that measures the popularity of competing candidates in a particular electoral race
tracking polls
campaign pols that measure candidates' relative strength on a daily basis
push poll
campaign tactic that attacks an opponent while pretending to be a poll
exit poll
interviews of voters as they leave the polling place
scientific polls
any poll using proper sampling designs
sample
the individuals whose opinions are actually measured
population
the people whose opinions are being estimated through interviews with samples of group members
probability sampling
a sample design showing that each individual in the population has a known probability of being included in the sample
simple random sampling
technique of drawing a sample for interview in which all members of the targeted population have the same probability of being selected for interview
systematic sampling
a sample design to ensure that each individual in the population has an equal chance of being chosen after the first name or number is chosen at random
the measures of the degree of accuracy of a poll based on the size of the sample
sampling error
leading question
a question worded to suggest a particular answer desired by the pollster
nonattitudes
opinions generated by a poll that do not exist in reality
political cynicism
the view that government officials look out mostly for themselves
political efficacy
the belief that an individual's actions can have an impact on the political process
political ideology
a cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about the role of government
liberalism
political philosophy that combines a belief in personal freedoms with the belief that the government should intervene in the economy to promote greater equality
conservatism
political philosophy that rests on belief in traditional instituions and a minimal role for government in economic activity
populist
political philosophy expressing support for greater economic equality and for traditional social values
libertarianism
political philosophy that espouses strong support for individual liberty in both social and economic areas of life
ideologue
one who thinks about politics almost exclusively through the prism of his or her ideological perspective
BUYcotting
using purchasing decisions to support the products and policies of businesses
rational actor theory
the theory that choices are based on our individual assessment of costs and benefits
free riders
those who enjoy the benefits from activities without paying the costs of participation
political engagement
psychological predisposition toward or interest in politics
political interest
an attribute of political participants that measures one's concern for an election outcome and the positions of the candidates on the issues
internal political efficacy
an individual's self-confidence in his or her ability to understand and participate in politics
external political efficacy 
an individual's belief that his or her activities will influence what the govt will do or who will win an election
political information
a measure of the amount of political knowledge an individual possesses concerning political issues, political figures, and the workings of the political system
strength of party identification
the degree of loyalty that an individual feels toward a particular political party
political mobilization
process whereby citizens are alerted to participatory opportunities and encouraged to become involved
direct mobilization
process by which citizens are contacted personally by candidate and party organizations to take part in political activities
indirect mobilization
process by which political leaders use networks of friends and acquaintances to activate political participation
voter fatigue
a tendency to tire of the process of voting as a result of frequent elections
checkbook democracy
a term that expresses the notion that little is required of citizens beyond their cash
consumer activism
the practice of making a political or social statement with one's buying power


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