Plant Biology Key Terms 2

This Is To Study For Exam 3
Created Nov 5, 2009
by weggler
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Define receptacle 
the part of the flower stalk to which the flower parts are attached
Define pedicel
the stalk of an individual flower in an inflorescence
For a flower, the ______ contains the ovules and develops into the fruit wall, while the ______...
carpel; stamens
What two organs is the shoot apical meristem composed of?
stem & leaves
What structures make up the phytomere?
leaf, node, internode, auxilary bud
How does the apical meristem of the shoot differ from that of the root?
The shoot apical meristem has no protective cap
What is the name for the single outer layers of the shoot apical meristem which result in the...
tunica; anticlinally or perpendicular to the meristem- add length
What is the plumule?
The first bud or embryonic shoot of the plant it has a stemlike axis and one or more young...
what interior layers of the SAM result in the ground meristem and procambium? How do these...
Corpus; periclinally or parallel to the meristem- adds girth
The vascular bundles are discontinuous in __________ , scattered in _________ and continuous...
eudicots; monocots; stem & leaves
The procambium of the leaf is initiated in the ______ and develops and expands into the ______________
stem; leaf primordia
On a flower the _______ is on the outer edge and arises below the ________ but both are attached...
sepals; petals
sepals form the ______ and petals form the ______
calyx, corolla
The stamens collectively called the __________ consist of a slender stalk called the ______...
androecium; filament; anthers; microsporangia; pollen sacs
The carpels collectively called the __________ and also called the ______ consist of a lower...
gynoecium; pistil; ovary; style; stigma
What does it mean for a flower to be perfect? imperfect?
perfect- the flower contains both stamens and carpels imperfect- the flower lacks either the...
What does it mean for a plant to be monoecious? dioecious?
monoecious- staminate and carpellate flowers occur on the SAME plantdioecious- staminate and...
What does it mean for a flower to be complete? incomplete?
complete- has all four floral whorls- sepals, petals, carpels, and stamensincomplete- it lacks...
Angiosperm literally means?
angio= vessel, sperm= seed
What is another name for flower?
sporophyll
What are the four whorls of a flower?
sepals, petals, carpels, and stamens
Name two characteristics about flowers
they have determinate growth, their ovules develop into seeds after fertilization
Together the sepals (calyx) and the petals (corolla) form  the ________
perianth
What does it mean for a flower to be hypogynous? Give an example
It means the perianth and the stamens are situated on the receptacle below the ovary; lilies
What does it mean for a flower to be epigynous? Give an example
It means the perianth and the stamens are on top or above the ovary; apple blossoms
What does it mean for a flower to be perigynous? Give an example
It means the the petals and stamens are conjoined and attached to the calyx to form a short...
In the angiosperms, the microgametophyte consists of _____ # of cells and the megagametophyte...
three; seven
Name 4 characteristics that make angiosperm reproduction distinct?
gametophytes are greatly reduced, lack antheridia & archegonia, pollination is indirect...
flowers' petals are said to evolve from? How many veins do petals have?
stamens that lost their reproductive capability. They have one vein
flowers' sepals are said to evolve from? How many veins do sepals have?
sepals are modified leaves, they have many veins
How do flowers with bat or bird pollinators differ from flowers that rely on insect pollinators?
They are usually odorless, and have large reserves of nectar. Some only open at night (for...
How do angiosperms that rely on wind pollination differ from other flowering plants?
not showy flowers, lack odor, stigmas are exposed, feathery (ex. corn & grasses)
__ # of cells are produced in the original microspore or pollen grain and then the _______...
2; generative cell; 3
What do all pollen grains contain? How do pollen grains vary?
all contain sporopollenin (exine), pectin (intine), starch, oilsvary by size and shape
What is the axial system?
Refers to the secondary vascular tissues. The axial system comprises of the fusiform initials...
What is the radial system?
Refers to the arrangement of the secondary vascular tissues. The radial system comprises of...
What structural feature of wood is responsible for the visibility of growth rings?
the secondary vascular tissues
Why are lenticels important to plants?
They are involved in gas exchange
Distinguish between the fascicular cambium and the the interfascicular cambium.
The fascicular cambium is the portion of the cambium arising within the vascular bundles, and...
Explain why the mesophyll tissue is particularly suited for photosynthesis.
It has a large volume of intercellular space that are connected with the outer atmosphere via...
What are the principal roles of the major and minor veins of  leaves?
major- transport photosynthates out of the leafminor- collect the photosynthates from mesophyll...
What is the style?
It is a column of tissue that extends out of the top of the ovary. The pollen tube grows through...
What is the stigma?
The stigma is the top end of the style that serves as a receptive place for pollen grains to...
What is the ovary?
The enlarged basal portion of the gynoecium
An imperfect flower is automatically incomplete but not all incomplete flowers are imperfect-...
Imperfect, means the flower does not contain both carpels and stamens, for a flower to be complete,...
What is a simple fruit? give an example.
A simple fruit is a fruit made up of one carpel or several united carpel of a flower. An example...
What is an aggregate fruit? give an example
An aggregate fruit is a fruit made up of one flower with many separate carpels of one gynoecium....
What is a multiple fruit? give an example.
A multiple fruit is made up of the gynoceia of more than one flower. A pineapple is an example.
What evidence supports the cohesion-tension theory
pressure of water potential has been tested, Flow diminishes first in the twigs then trunk,...
Distinguish between symplast and apoplast
These are two different pathways water can take. In apoplastic pathways the water moves in...
What is meant by parthenocarpic fruit?
These are fruits without seeds. When auxin is applied to the carpels it is possible for fruits...
In what ways is ethylene a unique plant hormone?
ethylene is a gaseous hormone and is responsible for the ripening of fruit. Banana growers...
______ ia  terpenoid consisting of as many as 100,000 isoprene units
Rubber
Whichof the two statements about Phloem loading and unloading in plants is FALSE:a. Is described...
b & d
Which of the following statements about the primary structure of the stem is FALSE?a. Its vascular...
c
The two hormones thought to be invlved in gravitropism are?
auxin & cytokinin
True or False, Angiosperms have archegonia but lack antheridia
False
True or Flase Lignin is a structural component of the cell wall of plants yet is considered...
True
True or False Interfascicular cambium arises in parenchyma cells between the vascular bundles
True
True or False Cytokinins are synthesized in roots and transported in the xylem to other parts...
True
True or False, Cells in the outermost layer of the tunica-corpus usually divide periclinally
False
Which of the following statements about xylem and phloem is FALSE? a. They are closely associated...
e
What are 3 propoerties of water that are critical for transpiration in plants?
adhesion, cohesion, polarity
Describe 2 stem modification and 2 leaf modifications
stem- tubers & bulbs (potatoes & onions both for storage)leaves- sepals (for showiness...
Put the following in the correct order to demonstrate how water moves from the soil into the...
EpidermisCortical CellsEndodermisVascular cylinder
Which tissues are produced by the vascular cambium and which by the cork cambium
vascular cambium- secondary phloem & xylemcork cambium- cork & phelloderm, both make...
What hormone controls phototropism in plants? Who discovered this?
Auxin; Darwin
What are the 3 different theories proposed for how water is moved from root to shoot? Which...
Root-pressure, Capillary action, Cohesion-tension.Cohesion tension is the most accepted
Describe the Cohesion-Tension theory
water moves from areas of high-potential to low potential. This means water is "pulled" from...
In angiosperms The female gametophyte is a result of ______ and ________
megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis
What is the result of megasporogenesis? What steps are involved.
The end result of megasporogenesis is the ovule. The mother spore splits meiotically into 4...
What is the result of megagametogenesis? What steps are involved.
The end result are 7 cells (1 egg cell, 2 synergids, 3 antipodals, and 1 big central cell w/...
In angiosperms, the mature male gametophyte is formed as a result of _________ and ________
microsporogenesis; microgametogenesis
What is the result of microsporogenesis. What are the steps involved?
The result is a tetrad of pollen grains. Sporogenesis occurs first in the mother spore which...
What is the result of microgametogenesis. What are the steps involved?
The result is the tube cell & 2 generative cells. A pollen grain splits mitotically into...
Describe some basic characteristics about plant hormones
Act in low concentrations, function as internal signals, effects can overlap (this is mainly...
Name the 5 classic plant hormones and a single function of each
Auxin- involved in apical dominanceCytokinin- involved in gravitropismEthylene- involved in...
What is the difference between a primary metabolite and a secondary metabolite?
A primary metabolite is involved in plant, growth & development and secondary metabolites...
Name the 3 main classes of secondary metabolites, give an example of each, and state why the...
Alkaloids (ex. morphine- very important pain killer)Terpenes (ex. taxol- thought to be an anti-carcinogen)Phenols...


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