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Define lesion and ablation. What are these used for?
A lesion is damage to a brain area.Ablation is removal of a brain area. These are often inflicted intentionally for medicinal or research purposes.
What are different types of invasive procedures?
Electrolytic lesions, CAT scan (computer axial tomography), and MRI
What is a CAT scan?
A CAT scan is an x-ray beam through the head that is rotated to scan all angles. The images show the density of specific areas. This is useful in detecting infarctions, tumors, hemorrhage,...
What is an MRI?
The head is encased in a high magnetic energy field, and the protons align with the field. Radio waves are then bounced off the hydrogen atoms. This is used to image parts of the body,...
What is an EEG scan?
The EEGs measure electric activity within the neurons of the brain. This is used in relation to epilepsy and comas.
Somatic Nervous System
The somatic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that accounts for voluntary movement
Autonomic Nervous System
The autonomic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control center for consciousness and visceral functions such as heart rate, digestion, sexual...
A cluster of neuron cell bodies, usually outside the CNS (like in the sympathetic nervous system)
A ridge or fold on the cerebral cortex between two clefts, separated by sulci
The part of the CNS that communicates with all the sense organs and muscles. It is segmented, and each segment has a sensory and motor nerve on each side. There is H-shaped grey matter...
Dorsal roots (axon bundles) carry sensory information, and the exiting ventral roots carry motor information.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Part of the autonomic system. A network of nerves that prepare organs for vigorous activity ("fight or flight"), and it responsible for things like increased heart rate and breathing,...
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Part of the autonomic system. It is in charge of decreasing heart rate and breathing, and increasing digestive activity. It controls vegetative, nonemergency responses.
What does the hindbrain consist of?
The brainstem, medulla, pons, reticular formation, Raphe nucleus, and cerebellum
The brainstem is in charge of basic vital life functions
Located just above the spinal cord. It is responsible for breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing, and sneezing.
The pons is anterior and ventral to the medulla. The pons is in charge of dreams and sleeping.
Part of the brainstem that controls sleep and arousal.
The Raphe system sends axons to the forebrain, modifying the brain's readiness to respond to stimuli
The cerebellum is located at the posterior side of the brain, and controls movement, balance, and coordination (along with other things).
What does the midbrain consist of?
The tectum, superior and inferior colliculi, tegmentum, and substantia nigra.
The roof of the midbrain. It controls auditory and visual reflexes.
Superior and Inferior Colliculi
Located on each side of the tectum. Responsible for sensory processing (the inferior aids in hearing and the superior aids in vision).
Located under the tectum (the intermediate level of the midbrain). Includes the nuclei for the 3rd and 4th cranial nerves and parts of the reticular formation.
Controls the dopamine-containing pathway that facilitates readiness for movement, reward, and addiction.
What structures does the forebrain consist of?
The limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus, pituary gland, basal ganglia, and hippocampus
The Limbic System
The "border" around the brainstem. It is in charge of motivations and emotions (sexual arousal, eating, drinking, anxiety, aggression).
Located in the center of the forebrain. Most sensory information passes through here to be processed and sent on (except olfaction).
Located near the base of the brain just ventral to the thalamus. It controls the pituitary gland (hormones) and motivated behaviors such as sexual behavior, eating and drinking, temperature...
An endocrine (hormone producing) gland attached to the base of the hypothalamus. It releases hormones to the blood stream when the hypothalamus tells it to.
Located lateral to the thalamus. It's linked to planning sequences of behavior, memory, and emotional expression. Parkinson's and Huntington's cause deterioration of the basal ganglia.
Located between the thalamus and the cerebral cortex. It's responsible for storing memories (new memories).
What are ventricles?
Four fluid-filled cavities within the brain. Each hemisphere contains one large ventricle, which connect to the third ventricle at the midline separating the right and left thalamus....
Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)
Produced by the choroid plexus in the ventricles. The fluid fills the ventricles and goes into the small space between the brain and the meninges. It acts as a cushion for the brain...
A large set of axons that connect the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.
The cellular layers on the outside of the cerebral hemispheres. There are 6 laminae, or layers parallel to the surface. It is also organized into two columns based on similar functions.
The Frontal Lobe
Located in the anterior part of the brain. Contains the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex (receives information from all sensory systems), and controls fine movements,...
What does the temporal lobe do and how dos it relate to Klover-Bucy syndrome?
Located below the frontal and parietal lobes. It contains the main auditory cortex, and is involved in some vision. Klover-Bucy syndrome results from damage to the temporal lobe, and...
The Parietal Lobe
Between the occipital lobe and the frontal lobe. It is the main center for touch sensations and information from muscle and joint receptors. It also indirectly affects vision and auditory...
Surgical disconnection of the prefrontal cortex from the rest of the brain. It used to be very popular because it caused people with diseases like schizophrenia were calmed. The surgery...
Dorsal vs. Ventral
Dorsal is toward the back, and ventral is the front (stomach side)
Anterior vs. Posterior
Anterior is toward the head, and posterior is toward the rear
Superior vs. Inferior
Superior is above, inferior is below
Lateral vs. Medial
Lateral is toward the side and away from the midline, and medial is toward the midline and away from the side
Proximal vs. Distal
Proximal is located close to the point of attachment, and distal is located more distant from the point of attachment
Ipsilateral vs. Contralateral
Ipsilateral is on the same side of the body (left and left), and contralateral is on opposite sides of the body (right and left)
A plane that shows brain structures seen from the front
A plane that shows plane structures as seen from the side
A plane that shows brain structures as seen from above (also known as the horizontal plane)
The response of a receptor cell to a stimulus, causing a change in voltage based on the stimulus strength. The intensity of the receptor potential determines the frequency of firing...
Law of Specific Nerve Energies
Perception is based on what pathway carries the signal (for example, auditory receptors will cause the perception of hearing, even if they are stimulated electrically).
The rear surface of the eye, lined with visual receptors (rods and cones). Light from the left side of the world strikes the right half of the retina, and vice versa.
A type of neuron in the retina that receives input from the bipolar cells.
A type of neuron in the retina that receives input from the receptors and sends it to the ganglion cells.
A type of cell that receives input from receptors and delivers inhibitory input to bipolar cells. They help the eyes adjust to dim or bright lights.
Bundle of axons that travel from the ganglion cells of the retina to the brain.
Area in the center of the human retina specialized for acute, detailed vision.
Trichromatic Theory (Young-Helmholtz Theory)
The theory that we perceive color with the rates of response by three types of cones that respond to different wavelengths (red, blue, and green)
Opponent Process Theory
The theory that we perceive color in terms of paired opposites: black and white; red and green, and blue and yellow (this is why we see a green dot after looking at a red dot for a...
We recognize the colors of objects even when the lighting changes. This is explained by the retinex theory, that the cortex compares input from different parts of the retina so that...
Color Vision Deficiency
The inability to perceive color differences like most other people do. Some examples are protanopia and deuteranopia.
"Red weakness," which means there's an absence of red retinal photoreceptors. The red appears very dark, as if there is reduced brightness.
"Green weakness," which means there's an absence of green retinal photoreceptors.
There are two types of cells, "on-center" and "off-center." On-center cells are stimulated when the center of the receptive field is exposed to light, and in inhibited when the surround...
Stimulation of the center causes depolarization and an increase in the firing of a ganglion cell; stimulation of the surround causes hyper polarization and a decrease in the firing...
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of the thalamus (LGN)
The relay center for visual information in the thalamus. It receives information from the ganglion cells from the retina and sends it to the occipital lobe through its axons.
Everything in the world that can be perceived at any given time.
The part of the visual field that, when stimulated, will result in an increase in firing of that particular neuron.
The restraint of activity in one neuron by activity in a neighboring neuron.
Small-celled neurons that are sensitive to color differences and small details, and have a sustained response. They're located in/near the fovea.
Large-celled neurons that are sensitive to movement, broad outlines of shape, and they have fast, sustained responses.
Primary Visual Cortex
The area of the cortex responsible for the first stage of visual processing (V1). Visual information goes from the LGN to the primary visual cortex.
Secondary Visual Cortex
The primary visual cortex sends information to the secondary visual cortex (V2), which processes information further and transmits it to additional areas (including back to V1).
The "what" pathway, because it's used for identifying and recognizing objects. It mostly leads from the parvocellular pathway of the LGN, and carries information about shape, movement,...
The "where" and "how" pathways, because it helps the motor system find and use objects. It mostly leads from the magnocellular pathway, and carries information to the parietal cortex....
Respond best to bars of light shining on the retina in a certain place/way (they will respond less when it moves further away from where your eyes are focused).
Respond best to bars of light that are at a certain orientation, but the location doesn't matter (they fire less action potentials when you change your position, but not necessarily...
Also called end-stop cells. Similar to complex cells in that they respond best to a bar of light that has a certain orientation; they have a strong inhibitory field (they have off-center...
Neurons whose responses indicate the presence of a particular feature, such as lines, edges, angle, or movement.
Inferior Temporal Cortex
The portion of the cortex where neurons are really sensitive to complex aspects of the shape of visual stimuli within very large receptive fields (object recognition).
The inability to recognize objects despite having otherwise normal vision. It includes prospagnosia, category-specific visual agnosia, associative visual agnosia, and apperceptive visual...
The inability to recognize faces without an overall sense of memory or vision. Lincoln Holmes has this, where he can't recognize faces.
Associative Visual Agnosia
The inability to associate visual form with meaning. For example, Kevin Chappell can physically see and describe the objects, but can't tell what they are.
Apperceptive Visual Agnosia
Problems with grouping visual sensations into a unified percept (problems with high level object recognition).
She has motion blindness that resulted from a stroke. Imagine a very slow strobe light of static images in succession.
The ability to localize objects within an apparently blind visual field, even though they have no awareness of perceiving any stimuli
Sensitive (critical) Period
Time during early development during which some event (such as an experience or the presence of a hormone) has a strong and long-lasting effect.