Physio Psych 110 Test 2

Exam 2 Prep
 
Created Feb 21, 2012
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Define lesion and ablation. What are these used for?
A lesion is damage to a brain area.Ablation is removal of a brain area. These are often inflicted...
What are different types of invasive procedures?
Electrolytic lesions, CAT scan (computer axial tomography), and MRI 
What is a CAT scan?
A CAT scan is an x-ray beam through the head that is rotated to scan all angles. The images...
What is an MRI?
The head is encased in a high magnetic energy field, and the protons align with the field....
What is an EEG scan?
The EEGs measure electric activity within the neurons of the brain. This is used in relation...
Somatic Nervous System
The somatic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that accounts for voluntary...
Autonomic Nervous System
The autonomic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control...
Ganglion
A cluster of neuron cell bodies, usually outside the CNS (like in the sympathetic nervous system)
Gyrus
A ridge or fold on the cerebral cortex between two clefts, separated by sulci
Spinal Cord
The part of the CNS that communicates with all the sense organs and muscles. It is segmented,...
Bell-Magendie Law
Dorsal roots (axon bundles) carry sensory information, and the exiting ventral roots carry...
Sympathetic Nervous System
Part of the autonomic system. A network of nerves that prepare organs for vigorous activity...
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Part of the autonomic system. It is in charge of decreasing heart rate and breathing, and increasing...
What does the hindbrain consist of?
The brainstem, medulla, pons, reticular formation, Raphe nucleus, and cerebellum
The Brainstem
The brainstem is in charge of basic vital life functions
Medulla Oblongata
Located just above the spinal cord. It is responsible for breathing, heart rate, vomiting,...
Pons
The pons is anterior and ventral to the medulla. The pons is in charge of dreams and sleeping.
Reticular Formation
Part of the brainstem that controls sleep and arousal. 
Raphe Nucleus
The Raphe system sends axons to the forebrain, modifying the brain's readiness to respond to...
Cerebellum
The cerebellum is located at the posterior side of the brain, and controls movement, balance,...
What does the midbrain consist of?
The tectum, superior and inferior colliculi, tegmentum, and substantia nigra.
Tectum
The roof of the midbrain. It controls auditory and visual reflexes.
Superior and Inferior Colliculi
Located on each side of the tectum. Responsible for sensory processing (the inferior aids in...
Tegmentum
Located under the tectum (the intermediate level of the midbrain). Includes the nuclei for...
Substantia Nigra
Controls the dopamine-containing pathway that facilitates readiness for movement, reward, and...
What structures does the forebrain consist of?
The limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus, pituary gland, basal ganglia, and hippocampus
The Limbic System
The "border" around the brainstem. It is in charge of motivations and emotions (sexual arousal,...
Thalamus
Located in the center of the forebrain. Most sensory information passes through here to be...
Hypothalamus
Located near the base of the brain just ventral to the thalamus. It controls the pituitary...
Pituitary Gland
An endocrine (hormone producing) gland attached to the base of the hypothalamus. It releases...
Basal Ganglia
Located lateral to the thalamus. It's linked to planning sequences of behavior, memory, and...
Hippocampus
Located between the thalamus and the cerebral cortex. It's responsible for storing memories...
What are ventricles?
Four fluid-filled cavities within the brain. Each hemisphere contains one large ventricle,...
Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)
Produced by the choroid plexus in the ventricles. The fluid fills the ventricles and goes into...
Corpus Callosum
A large set of axons that connect the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.
Cerebral Cortex
The cellular layers on the outside of the cerebral hemispheres. There are 6 laminae, or layers...
The Frontal Lobe
Located in the anterior part of the brain. Contains the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal...
What does the temporal lobe do and how dos it relate to Klover-Bucy syndrome?
Located below the frontal and parietal lobes. It contains the main auditory cortex, and is...
The Parietal Lobe
Between the occipital lobe and the frontal lobe. It is the main center for touch sensations...
Prefrontal Lobotomy
Surgical disconnection of the prefrontal cortex from the rest of the brain. It used to be very...
Dorsal vs. Ventral
Dorsal is toward the back, and ventral is the front (stomach side)
Anterior vs. Posterior
Anterior is toward the head, and posterior is toward the rear
Superior vs. Inferior
Superior is above, inferior is below
Lateral vs. Medial
Lateral is toward the side and away from the midline, and medial is toward the midline and...
Proximal vs. Distal
Proximal is located close to the point of attachment, and distal is located more distant from...
Ipsilateral vs. Contralateral
Ipsilateral is on the same side of the body (left and left), and contralateral is on opposite...
Coronal Plane
A plane that shows brain structures seen from the front
Sagittal Plane
A plane that shows plane structures as seen from the side
Transverse Plane
A plane that shows brain structures as seen from above (also known as the horizontal plane)
Receptor Potential
The response of a receptor cell to a stimulus, causing a change in voltage based on the stimulus...
Law of Specific Nerve Energies
Perception is based on what pathway carries the signal (for example, auditory receptors will...
Retina
The rear surface of the eye, lined with visual receptors (rods and cones). Light from the left...
Ganglion Cells
A type of neuron in the retina that receives input from the bipolar cells. 
Bipolar Cells
A type of neuron in the retina that receives input from the receptors and sends it to the ganglion...
Horizontal Cells
A type of cell that receives input from receptors and delivers inhibitory input to bipolar...
Optic Nerve
Bundle of axons that travel from the ganglion cells of the retina to the brain. 
Fovea
Area in the center of the human retina specialized for acute, detailed vision. 
Trichromatic Theory (Young-Helmholtz Theory)
The theory that we perceive color with the rates of response by three types of cones that respond...
Opponent Process Theory
The theory that we perceive color in terms of paired opposites: black and white; red and green,...
Color Constancy
We recognize the colors of objects even when the lighting changes. This is explained by the...
Color Vision Deficiency
The inability to perceive color differences like most other people do. Some examples are protanopia...
Protanopia
"Red weakness," which means there's an absence of red retinal photoreceptors. The red appears...
Deuteranopia
"Green weakness," which means there's an absence of green retinal photoreceptors.
Center-surround Organization
There are two types of cells, "on-center" and "off-center." On-center cells are stimulated...
On-center Cells
Stimulation of the center causes depolarization and an increase in the firing of a ganglion...
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of the thalamus (LGN)
The relay center for visual information in the thalamus. It receives information from the ganglion...
Visual Field
Everything in the world that can be perceived at any given time.
Receptive Field
The part of the visual field that, when stimulated, will result in an increase in firing of...
Lateral Inhibition
The restraint of activity in one neuron by activity in a neighboring neuron.
Parvocellular Neurons
Small-celled neurons that are sensitive to color differences and small details, and have a...
Magnocellular Neurons
Large-celled neurons that are sensitive to movement, broad outlines of shape, and they have...
Primary Visual Cortex
The area of the cortex responsible for the first stage of visual processing (V1). Visual information...
Secondary Visual Cortex
The primary visual cortex sends information to the secondary visual cortex (V2), which processes...
Ventral Stream
The "what" pathway, because it's used for identifying and recognizing objects. It mostly leads...
Dorsal Stream
The "where" and "how" pathways, because it helps the motor system find and use objects. It...
Simple Cells
Respond best to bars of light shining on the retina in a certain place/way (they will respond...
Complex Cells
Respond best to bars of light that are at a certain orientation, but the location doesn't matter...
Hypercomplex Cells
Also called end-stop cells. Similar to complex cells in that they respond best to a bar of...
Feature Detectors
Neurons whose responses indicate the presence of a particular feature, such as lines, edges,...
Inferior Temporal Cortex
The portion of the cortex where neurons are really sensitive to complex aspects of the shape...
Visual Agnosia
The inability to recognize objects despite having otherwise normal vision. It includes prospagnosia,...
Prosopagnosia
The inability to recognize faces without an overall sense of memory or vision. Lincoln Holmes...
Associative Visual Agnosia
The inability to associate visual form with meaning. For example, Kevin Chappell can physically...
Apperceptive Visual Agnosia
Problems with grouping visual sensations into a unified percept (problems with high level object...
Gisela Leibold
She has motion blindness that resulted from a stroke. Imagine a very slow strobe light of static...
Blindsight
The ability to localize objects within an apparently blind visual field, even though they have...
Sensitive (critical) Period
Time during early development during which some event (such as an experience or the presence...


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