Physical Geography

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Hydrolocial cycle
DOWN- Precipitation, interception, throughfall stemflow, surface storage, infiltration, soil water storage, percolation, groundwater storage. ACROSS- surface runoff (comes off surface storage). Throughflow (comes off soil water storage). Groundwater flow (comes off groundwater storage). Channel storage, channel flow, river runoff. UP- evaporation, transpiration, evapotranspiration.
Storm hydrograph
features- lag time, peak discharge, rising limb and falling limb. Factors effecting- antecedant moisture, rock type, soil type, vegetation, precipitation, temperature.
River Erosion
Headward erosion at source. Vertical erosion near upper stages of river. Lateral erosion at middle and lower. Caused by hydraulic action, abrasion, attrition, cavitation, corrosion.
Solution, suspension, salation, traction
Causes and Impacts of Floods (Case Study)
Carlisle, Cumbria, 2005
drainage basin of river eden is very large. PF-200mm of rain on 6th january in 1 night.. Rain fell on saturated ground. 1500 cumecs peak discharge. HF- built up impermiable materials. little infiltration and sewere systems overflowed.. EFFECTS- 3 dead, 3000 made homeless, education distrupted, water born diseases increased and stress related illneses following floods. Cost £100 million. 350 businesses had to shut down. public transport shut off, leading to further problems with businesses etc.
Soft Engineering flood management case study
Abingdon in South East England built on flood plains of the river thames and river Ock. 1500 properties have a 1% chance of flooding each year. July 2007 flash floods, thames and Ock burst banks, flooding 660 houses in abingdon.
Gravel soakways, low value land allowed to flood, planning restrictions, advice on internet, flood wardens communicate warnings, Afforestation.

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