Physical Geography Exam 1

Physical Geography Exam 1 These Flash Cards Are To Study For A Physical Geography Exam Containing Material On Volcanoes, Minerals, Rocks, Tectonic Plates, Geologic Time, Earthquakes, Etc. 
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Accretion
 
Process by which continents grow in size by addition of volcanic arcs and micro-continents through subduction of intervening oceanic crust.
Amorphous
 
Said of rocks having no crystal structure
Asthenosphere
 
Plastic layer of the upper mantle that underlies the lithosphere. Its rock is very hot and therefore weak and easily deformed.
Basalt
 
Fine-grained dark volcanic rock
Calcite
 
a colourless or white mineral, found in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, in veins, in limestone, and in stalagmites and stalactites. It is used in the manufacture of cement, plaster, paint, glass, and fertilizer.
Carbonates
 
Minerals that are carbonate compounds of calcium or magnesium
Cenozoic
 
is the most recent of the three classic geological eras and covers the period from 65.5 million years ago to the present.
composite volcano
 

Volcanoes with the classic symmetrical cone-shaped peak, produced by a mixture of lava outpouring and pyroclastic explosions
convergent boundary
 

Location where tow lithospheric plates collide
Divergent boundary
 

location where two lithospheric plates spread apart
earthquake
 
Vibrations generated by abrupt movement of Earth's crust
epicenter
 

location on the surface directly above the center of fault rupture during an earthquake
Faults
 

a fracture or zone of fracture where the rock is forcefully broken with an accompanying displacement, that is, an actual movement of the crust on one or both sides of the break. The movement can be horizontal or vertical, or a combination of both.
felsic
 

Containing a group of light-colored silicate minerals that occur in igneous rocks.
Focus
 

The point of origin of an earthquake
Gases
 
Volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen, released during an eruption of a volcano.
Gemstones
 
A precious or semiprecious stone that may be used as a jewel when cut and polished. It must be beautiful, rare, and durable
geomorphology
 
the study of the characteristics, origin, and development of landforms.
Geologic Time
 

from oldest to youngest1. precambrian2. paleozoic3. Mesozoic4. Cenozoic
Gneiss
 

one of the most common metamorphic rocks; it is characterized by broad foliation and banded appearance.
granite
 

the most common and well-known plutonic (intursive) rock; coarse-grained rock consisting of both dark and light colored minerals.
hematite
 

a red, grey, or black mineral, found as massive beds and in veins and igneous rocks. It is the chief source of iron.
Igneous rocks
 

rocks formed by solidification of molten magma
industrial minerals
 
Rocks, minerals, or other naturally occurring inorganic substances of economic value that are not metallic ores, mineral fuels, or gemstones
inner core
 

the solid, dense, innermost portion of earth, believed to consist largely of iron and nickel
intensity
 

a measure of how much damage an earthquake causes.
lahar
 

volcanic mudflow; a fast-moving muddy flow of volcanic ashe and rock fragments.
landform
 
an individual topographic feature, of whatever size
lava
 
molten magma that is extruded onto the surface of earth, where it cools and solidifies.
lithosphere
 

the solid, inorganic portion of Earth. Also, tectonic plates consisting of the crust and upper rigid mantle. Sometimes used as a general term for the entire solid Earth.
mafic
 

Containing or relating to a group of dark-colored minerals, composed chiefly of magnesium and iron, that occur in igneous rocks.
magma
 
molten material in Earth's interior
magnitude
 
scale used to describe the relative amount of energy released during an earthquake.
mantle
 

the portion of earth beneath the crust and surrounding the core.
Mesozoic
 
the second youngest geologic age; the name refers to "middle life"; from 248 to65 million years ago.
metamorphic rocks
 

rock that was originally something else but has been drastically change by massive forces or heat and/or pressure working on in from within Earth.
mid-ocean spreading ridge
 

Seafloor spreading occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge. Seafloor spreading helps explain continental drift in the theory of plate tectonics.
mineral
 
a naturally formed solid inorganic substance that has an unvarying chemical composition.
Mt. St. Helens
 

Mount St. Helens is an active stratovolcano.
normal faults
 

the result of tension producing a steeply inclined fault plain, with the block of land on one side being pushed up, or upthrown, in relation to the block on the other side, which is downthrown.
ore minerals
 
An ore is a rock deposit that contains enough mineral to make it economically feasible to extract and purify to derive a desired product material. Typical ores and their desired material would include, but not be limited to: pyrite-sulfur, malachite-copper, magnetite-iron, molybdenite-molybdenum, bauxite-aluminum, limestone-lime, sandstone-silica.
outer core
 

the liquid shell beneath the mantle that encloses Earth's inner core.
oxides
 
a category of minerals composed of oxygen combined with another element.
Paleozoic
 
The era of geologic time from about 540 to 245 million years ago. The beginning of the Paleozoic Era is characterized by a great diversity of marine invertebrate animals. Primitive fish and reptiles, land plants, and insects also first appeared during this time
physical geography
 
The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, especially in its current aspects, including land formation, climate, currents, and distribution of flora and fauna
Plate tectonics
 

a coherent theory of massive crustal rearrangement based on the movement of continent-sized lithospheric plates.
pluton
 

a large, intrusive igneous body.
Precambrian
 
denoting, or formed in the earliest geological era, which lasted for about 4 000 000 000 years before the Cambrian period
P-waves
 
A body wave that can pass through all layers of the earth. Also known as compressional wave; longitudinal wave; primary wave.
pyroclastic flow
 

high-speed avalanche of hot gases, ash, and rock fragments emitted from a volcano during an explosive eruption
quartz
 

a mineral composed of silicon dioxide
reverse fault
 

a fault produced from compression, the the upthrown block rising steeply above the downthrown block, so that the fault scarp would be severely oversteeepened if erosion id not act to smooth the slope.
rift zone
 
A large area of the earth in which plates of the earth's crust are moving away from each other, forming an extensive system of fractures and faults.
rock-forming minerals
 

A handful of very abundant minerals account for the great majority of the Earth's rocks. These rock-forming minerals are the ones that define the bulk chemistry of rocks and how rocks are classified.
Rocks
 
solid material composed of aggregated mineral particles
sedimentary rocks
 

rock formed of sediment that is consolidated by the combination of pressure and cementation
shield volcano
 

volcanoes build up in a lengthy outpouring of very fluid basaltic lava. shield volcanoes are broad mountains with gentle slopes.
silicates
 
a category of minerals composed of silicon and oxygen combined with another element or elements
slate
 

metamorphosed shale
strike-slip fault
 

a fault produced by shearing, with adjacent blocks being displaced laterally with respect o one another, the movement is entirely horizontal.
subduction zone
 

decent of the edge of a lithospheric plate under the edge of an adjoining plate, presumably involving a partial meting of the subducted material
s-waves
 
A type of seismic wave, the S-wave, secondary wave, or shear wave is one of the two main types of elasticbody waves, so named because they move through the body of an object, unlike surface waves.
transform boundary
 

two plates slipping pst one another laterally in atypical fault structure.
viscosity
 
When it comes to liquids, viscosity is a measurement of how thick or syrupy it is. Water has low viscosity, while corn syrup, for example, is highly viscous. You can measure lava in terms of viscosity as well. And the lava viscosity defines the size and shape of a volcano.
Volcanoes
 

a conical mountain or hill from which extrusive material is ejected
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