Physical Geography Exam 1

These Flash Cards Are To Study For A Physical Geography Exam Containing Material On Volcanoes, Minerals, Rocks, Tectonic Plates, Geologic Time, Earthquakes, Etc. 
 
Created Feb 21, 2010
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mckee10
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Accretion
Process by which continents grow in size by addition of volcanic arcs and micro-continents...
Amorphous
Said of rocks having no crystal structure
Asthenosphere
Plastic layer of the upper mantle that underlies the lithosphere. Its rock is very hot and...
Basalt
Fine-grained dark volcanic rock
Calcite
a colourless or white mineral, found in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, in veins, in limestone,...
Carbonates
Minerals that are carbonate compounds of calcium or magnesium
Cenozoic
is the most recent of the three classic geological eras and covers the period from 65.5...
composite volcano

Volcanoes with the classic symmetrical cone-shaped peak, produced by a mixture of lava outpouring...
convergent boundary

Location where tow lithospheric plates collide
Divergent boundary

location where two lithospheric plates spread apart
earthquake
Vibrations generated by abrupt movement of Earth's crust
epicenter

location on the surface directly above the center of fault rupture during an earthquake
Faults

a fracture or zone of fracture where the rock is forcefully broken with an accompanying displacement,...
felsic

Containing a group of light-colored silicate minerals that occur in igneous rocks.
Focus

The point of origin of an earthquake
Gases
Volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide,...
Gemstones
A precious or semiprecious stone that may be used as a jewel when cut and polished. It must...
geomorphology
the study of the characteristics, origin, and development of landforms.
Geologic Time

from oldest to youngest1. precambrian2. paleozoic3. Mesozoic4. Cenozoic
Gneiss

one of the most common metamorphic rocks; it is characterized by broad foliation and banded...
granite

the most common and well-known plutonic (intursive) rock; coarse-grained rock consisting of...
hematite

 a red, grey, or black mineral, found as massive beds and in veins and igneous rocks....
Igneous rocks

rocks formed by solidification of molten magma
industrial minerals
Rocks, minerals, or other naturally occurring inorganic substances of economic value that are...
inner core

the solid, dense, innermost portion of earth, believed to consist largely of iron and nickel
intensity

a measure of how much damage an earthquake causes.
lahar

volcanic mudflow; a fast-moving muddy flow of volcanic ashe and rock fragments.
landform
an individual topographic feature, of whatever size
lava
molten magma that is extruded onto the surface of earth, where it cools and solidifies.
lithosphere

the solid, inorganic portion of Earth. Also, tectonic plates consisting of the crust and upper...
mafic

Containing or relating to a group of dark-colored minerals, composed chiefly of magnesium and...
magma
molten  material in Earth's interior
magnitude
scale used to describe the relative amount of energy released during an earthquake.
mantle

the portion of earth beneath the crust and surrounding the core.
Mesozoic
the second youngest geologic age; the name refers to "middle life"; from 248 to65 million years...
metamorphic rocks

rock that was originally something else but has been drastically change by massive forces or...
mid-ocean spreading ridge

Seafloor spreading occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is...
mineral
a naturally formed solid inorganic substance that has an unvarying chemical composition.
Mt. St. Helens

Mount St. Helens is an active stratovolcano.
normal faults

the result of tension producing a steeply inclined fault plain, with  the block of land...
ore minerals
An ore is a rock deposit that contains enough mineral to make it economically feasible to extract...
outer core

the liquid shell beneath the mantle that encloses Earth's inner core. 
oxides
a category of minerals composed of oxygen combined with another element.
Paleozoic
The era of geologic time from about 540 to 245 million years ago. The beginning of the Paleozoic...
physical geography
The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, especially in its current aspects,...
Plate tectonics

a coherent theory of massive crustal rearrangement based on the movement of continent-sized...
pluton

a large, intrusive igneous body.
Precambrian
denoting, or formed in the earliest geological era, which lasted for about 4 000 000 000...
P-waves
A body wave that can pass through all layers of the earth. Also known as compressional...
pyroclastic flow

high-speed avalanche of hot gases, ash, and rock fragments emitted from a volcano during an...
quartz

a mineral composed of silicon dioxide 
reverse fault

a fault produced from compression, the the upthrown block rising steeply above the downthrown...
rift zone
A large area of the earth in which plates of the earth's crust are moving away from each other,...
rock-forming minerals

A handful of very abundant minerals account for the great majority of the Earth's rocks. These...
Rocks
solid material composed of aggregated mineral particles
sedimentary rocks

rock formed of sediment that is consolidated by the combination of pressure and cementation
shield volcano

volcanoes build up in a lengthy outpouring of very fluid basaltic lava.  shield volcanoes...
silicates
a category of minerals composed of silicon and oxygen combined with another element or elements
slate

metamorphosed shale
strike-slip fault

a fault produced by shearing, with adjacent blocks being displaced laterally with respect o...
subduction zone

decent of the edge of a lithospheric plate under the edge of an adjoining plate, presumably...
s-waves
A type of seismic wave, the S-wave, secondary wave, or shear wave is...
transform boundary

two plates slipping pst one another laterally in atypical fault structure.
viscosity
When it comes to liquids, viscosity is a measurement of how thick or syrupy it is....
Volcanoes

a conical mountain or hill from which extrusive material is ejected

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