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Psych Test 4


This Is For The 4th Psych Test For Psych 203 At UNK.
  
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came up with classical conditioning
 
Ivan Pavlov
the process by which experience or practice results in relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior
 
learning
type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different, formally neutral, stimulus
 
classical learning
stimulus that invariably causes an organism to respond in a specific way
 
unconditioned stimulus (US)
a response that takes place in an organism whenever an unconditioned stimulus occurs
 
conditioned stimulus (CS)
an originally neutral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and eventually produces the desired response in an organism when presented alone
 
conditioned response (CR)
pairing the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus on only a portion of the learning trials
 
intermittent pairing
a conditioning technique designed to gradually reduce anxiety about a particular object or situation
 
desensitization therapy
a biological readiness to learn certain associations because of their survival advantages
 
preparedness
conditioned avoidance of certain foods even if there is only one pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
 
conditioned taste aversion
type of learning in which behaviors are emitted (in presence of stimuli) to earn rewards or avoid punishment
 
operant (instrumental) conditioning
behaviors designed to operate on the environment in a way that will gain something desired or avoid something unpleasant
 
operant behaviors
a stimuli that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
 
reinforcers
stimuli that follows a behavior and decreases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
 
punishers
Thondike's theory that behavior consistently rewarded will be "stamped in" as learned behavior, and behavior that brings about discomfort will be "stamped out"
 
law of effect (principle of reinforcement)
box often used in operant conditioning of animals; it limits the available responses and thus increases the likelihood that the desired response will occur
 
Skinner box
reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior
 
shaping
events whose presence increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
 
positive reinforcers
events whose reduction of termination increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
 
negative reinforcers
any event whose presence decreases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
 
punishment
learning a desirable behavior to prevent the occurrence of something unpleasant, such as punishment
 
avoidance training
failure to take steps to avoid or escape from an unpleasant or aversive stimulus that occurs as a result of previous exposure to unavoidable painful stimuli
 
learned helplessness
a technique that uses monitoring devices to provide precise information abou internal physiological processes, such as heart rate or blood pressure, to teach people to gain voluntary control over these functions
 
biofeedback
a biofeedback technique that monitors brain waves with the use of an EEG to teach people to gain voluntary control over their brain wave activity
 
neurofeedback
a reliable "if-then" relationship between to events, such as CS and US
 
contingency
a process whereby prior conditioning prevents condition to a second stimulus even when the two stimuli are presented simultaneously
 
blocking
operant conditioning, the rule for determining when and how often reinforcers will be delivered
 
schedule of reinforcement
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed length of time since the last reinforcement
 
fixed-interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after varying lengths of time following the last reinforcement
 
variable-interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed number of correct responses
 
fixed-ration response
a reinforcement schedule in which a varying number of correct responses must occur before reinforcement is presented
 
variable-ratio schedule
a decrease in the strength or frequency, or stopping, of a learned response because of failure tocontinue pairing the US and CS or withholding of reinforcement
 
extinction
the reappearance of an extinguished response after the passage of time, without training
 
spontaneous recovery
control of conditioned responses by cues or stimuli in the environment
 
stimulus control
the transfer of a learned response to different but similar stimuli
 
stimulus generalization
learning to respond to only one stimulus and to inhibit the response to all other stimuli
 
stimulus discrimination
giving a response that is somewhat different from the response originally learned to that stimulus
 
response generalization
conditioning based on previous learning, the conditioned stimulus serves as an unconditioned stimulus for further training
 
higher order conditioning
reinforecers that are rewarding in themselves, such as food, water, or sex
 
primary reinforcers
reinforcers whose value is acquired through association with other primary or secondary reinforcers
 
secondary reinforcers
the ability to remember the things that we have experienced, imagined, and learned
 
memory
a computer-like model used to describe the way humans encode, store, and retrieve information
 
information-processing model
entry points for raw information from the senses
 
sensory registers
the selection of some incoming information for further processing
 
attention
working memory, briefly stores and processes selected information from the sensory registers
 
short-term memory (STM)
the grouping of information into meaningful units for easier handling by short-term memory
 
chunking
retaining information in memory simply by repeating it over and over
 
rote rehearsal
the portion of memory that is more or less permanent, corresponding to everything we know
 
long-term memory (LTM)
the finding that when asked to recall a list of unrelated items, performance is better for the items, performance is better for the items at the beginning and end of the list
 
serial position effect
the linking of new information in short-term memory to familiar material stored in long-term memory
 
elaborative rehearsal
techniques that make material easier to remember
 
mnemonics
a set of beliefs or expectations about something that is based on past experience
 
schema
the process by which new information interferes with information already in memory
 
retroactive interference
the process by which information already in memory interferes with new information
 
proactive interference
attempting to remember something in a different situation or internal state may negatively impact memory
 
situational factors
memories are reconstructed or replaced with incorrect information which is often more consistent with a current image or perception
 
reconstruction
the difficulty adults have remembering experiences from their first two years of life
 
childhood amnesia
the ability to reproduce unusually sharp and detailed images of something one has seen (photographic memory)
 
eidetic imagery
new visual information keeps coming into the register, and the new information replaces the old information almost immediately
 
masking
just because we are looking or listening to something doesn't mean we are attending to it is called
 
inattentional blindness
how much info can STM hold?
 
as much info that can be repeated in 1.5 to 2 seconds
forming a mental picture of images in order to remember something
 
dual coding
-remembering the 1st items on a list
-remembering the last items on a list
 
-primacy
-recency
our ability to actively recall info is affected by our internal state (study on caffeine will do better on test with caffeine)
 
state-dependent memory

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