Psych Test 4

64 cards

This Is For The 4th Psych Test For Psych 203 At UNK.


 
  
Created Apr 2, 2012
by
briana607

 

 
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1
came up with classical conditioning
 
Ivan Pavlov
2
the process by which experience or practice results in relatively permanent change in behavior...
 
learning
3
type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited...
 
classical learning
4
stimulus that invariably causes an organism to respond in a specific way
 
unconditioned stimulus (US)
5
a response that takes place in an organism whenever an unconditioned stimulus occurs
 
conditioned stimulus (CS)
6
an originally neutral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and eventually...
 
conditioned response (CR)
7
pairing the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus on only a portion of the learning...
 
intermittent pairing
8
a conditioning technique designed to gradually reduce anxiety about a particular object or...
 
desensitization therapy
9
a biological readiness to learn certain associations because of their survival advantages
 
preparedness
10
conditioned avoidance of certain foods even if there is only one pairing of conditioned and...
 
conditioned taste aversion
11
type of learning in which behaviors are emitted (in presence of stimuli) to earn rewards or...
 
operant (instrumental) conditioning
12
behaviors designed to operate on the environment in a way that will gain something desired...
 
operant behaviors
13
a stimuli that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
 
reinforcers
14
stimuli that follows a behavior and decreases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
 
punishers
15
Thondike's theory that behavior consistently rewarded will be "stamped in" as learned behavior,...
 
law of effect (principle of reinforcement)
16
box often used in operant conditioning of animals; it limits the available responses and thus...
 
Skinner box
17
reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior
 
shaping
18
events whose presence increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
 
positive reinforcers
19
events whose reduction of termination increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
 
negative reinforcers
20
any event whose presence decreases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
 
punishment
21
learning a desirable behavior to prevent the occurrence of something unpleasant, such as punishment
 
avoidance training
22
failure to take steps to avoid or escape from an unpleasant or aversive stimulus that occurs...
 
learned helplessness
23
a technique that uses monitoring devices to provide precise information abou internal physiological...
 
biofeedback
24
a biofeedback technique that monitors brain waves with the use of an EEG to teach people to...
 
neurofeedback
25
a reliable "if-then" relationship between to events, such as CS and US
 
contingency
26
a process whereby prior conditioning prevents condition to a second stimulus even when the...
 
blocking
27
operant conditioning, the rule for determining when and how often reinforcers will be delivered
 
schedule of reinforcement
28
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed length of...
 
fixed-interval schedule
29
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after varying lengths...
 
variable-interval schedule
30
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed number of...
 
fixed-ration response
31
a reinforcement schedule in which a varying number of correct responses must occur before reinforcement...
 
variable-ratio schedule
32
a decrease in the strength or frequency, or stopping, of a learned response because of failure...
 
extinction
33
the reappearance of an extinguished response after the passage of time, without training
 
spontaneous recovery
34
control of conditioned responses by cues or stimuli in the environment
 
stimulus control
35
the transfer of a learned response to different but similar stimuli
 
stimulus generalization
36
learning to respond to only one stimulus and to inhibit the response to all other stimuli
 
stimulus discrimination
37
giving a response that is somewhat different from the response originally learned to that stimulus
 
response generalization
38
conditioning based on previous learning, the conditioned stimulus serves as an unconditioned...
 
higher order conditioning
39
reinforecers that are rewarding in themselves, such as food, water, or sex
 
primary reinforcers
40
reinforcers whose value is acquired through association with other primary or secondary reinforcers
 
secondary reinforcers
41
the ability to remember the things that we have experienced, imagined, and learned
 
memory
42
a computer-like model used to describe the way humans encode, store, and retrieve information
 
information-processing model
43
entry points for raw information from the senses
 
sensory registers
44
the selection of some incoming information for further processing
 
attention
45
working memory, briefly stores and processes selected information from the sensory registers...
 
short-term memory (STM)
46
the grouping of information into meaningful units for easier handling by short-term memory
 
chunking
47
retaining information in memory simply by repeating it over and over
 
rote rehearsal
48
the portion of memory that is more or less permanent, corresponding to everything we know
 
long-term memory (LTM)
49
the finding that when asked to recall a list of unrelated items, performance is better for...
 
serial position effect
50
the linking of new information in short-term memory to familiar material stored in long-term...
 
elaborative rehearsal
51
techniques that make material easier to remember
 
mnemonics
52
a set of beliefs or expectations about something that is based on past experience
 
schema
53
the process by which new information interferes with information already in memory
 
retroactive interference
54
the process by which information already in memory interferes with new information
 
proactive interference
55
attempting to remember something in a different situation or internal state may negatively...
 
situational factors
56
memories are reconstructed or replaced with incorrect information which is often more consistent...
 
reconstruction
57
the difficulty adults have remembering experiences from their first two years of life
 
childhood amnesia
58
the ability to reproduce unusually sharp and detailed images of something one has seen (photographic...
 
eidetic imagery
59
new visual information keeps coming into the register, and the new information replaces the...
 
masking
60
just because we are looking or listening to something doesn't mean we are attending to it is...
 
inattentional blindness
61
how much info can STM hold?
 
as much info that can be repeated in 1.5 to 2 seconds
62
forming a mental picture of images in order to remember something
 
dual coding
63
-remembering the 1st items on a list
-remembering the last items on a list
 
-primacy
-recency
64
our ability to actively recall info is affected by our internal state (study on caffeine will...
 
state-dependent memory


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