Photosynthesis/ Cellular Respiration

Photosynthesis/ Cellular Respiration This Flashcard Set Contains Vocabulary Involved In The Processes Of Photosynthesis And Cellular Respiration. It Is Geared Toward Those Studying The Principles Of Biology.
  
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autotroph
 
organism that makes its own food using carbon from inorganic molecules such as CO2, and energy from the environment
chlorophyll a
 
main photosynthetic pigment in plants
heterotroph
 
organism that obtains energy and carbon from organic compounds assembled by other organisms
photosynthesis
 
metabolic pathway by which most autotrophs capture light energy and use it to make sugars from CO2 and water
pigment
 
an organic molecule that can absorb light of certain wavelengths
wavelength
 
distance between the crests of two successive waves of light
chloroplast
 
organelle of photosynthesis in plants and some protists
photosystem
 
cluster of pigments and proteins that converts light energy to chemical energy in photosynthesis
stroma
 
semifluid matrix between the thylakoid membrane and the two outer membranes of a chloroplast
thylakoid membrane
 
a chloroplast's highly folded inner membrane system; forms a continuous compartment in the stroma
electron transfer phosphorylation
 
metabolic pathway in which electron flow through electron transfer chains sets up a hydrogen ion gradient that drives ATP formation
light-dependent reactions
 
metabolic pathway of photosynthesis that converts light energy to chemical energy of ATP and NADPH
light-independent reactions
 
metabolic pathway of photosynthesis that uses ATP and NADPH to assemble sugars from water and CO2
Calvin-Benson cycle
 
light-independent reactions of photosynthesis; cyclic pathway that forms glucose from CO2
carbon fixation
 
process by which carbon from an inorganic source such as carbon dioxide becomes incorporated into an organic molecule
photorespiration
 
reaction in which rubisco attaches oxygen instead of carbon dioxide to ribulose bisphosphate
rubisco
 
ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. carbon-fixing enzyme of the Calvin-Benson cycle
stomata
 
gaps that open between guard cells on plant surfaces
aerobic
 
involving or occurring in the presence of oxygen
aerobic respiration
 
aerobic pathway that breaks down carbohydrates to produce ATP
anaerobic
 
occurring in the absence of oxygen
glycolysis
 
set of reactions in which glucose or another sugar is broken down to two pyruvate for a net yield of two ATP
photoautotroph
 
photosynthetic autotroph
pyruvate
 
three-carbon end product of glycolysis
Krebs cycle
 
cyclic pathway that, along with acetyl-CoA formation, breaks down two pyruvate to carbon dioxide for a net yield of two ATP and many reduced coenzymes
alcoholic fermentation
 
anaerobic carbohydrate breakdown pathway that produces ATP and ethanol
fermentation
 
an anaerobic pathway by which cells harvest energy from carbohydrates
lactate fermentation
 
anaerobic carbohydrate breakdown pathway that produces ATP and lactate

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