Phonics - Chapter 3

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}Based on the subskill theory of teaching reading.  }Students must master a certain set of skills before they can read }It’s like learning all the notes before you play the piano.
What is the content of Phonics
}Vowels: }A,E,I,O,U and sometimes Y }Let’s practice the long and short sounds. }When is Y a vowel? ◦Rule: Every syllable has a vowel –EX: Myth (middle position) –EX: Happy (final position)
}All other letters other than vowels
Consonat Blends/Clusters
}Two or more adjacent consonant letters whose sounds are blended together, with each sound retaining its identity. } }Ex: fr in frame    cl in click – You hear each sound   separately.
Consonant Digraphs
}Two adjacent consonant letters that represent a single speech sound constitute a digraph.  Di = two  Graph= Letter } }EX: sh, ch, --You hear only one sound.  There are only a few consonant digraphs. See your handout for regular and variant digraphs
Vowel Digraphs  
}Two adjacent vowel letters that represent a single speech sound constitute a vowel }When two vowels go a walking the first one does the talking – most of the time. . . J ◦Rain, peak, seek, treat, BUT WHAT ABOUT THE VARIANTS?  Like bread, reign, rein, –Context is needed! 
Diphthongs: (Greek for “having two sounds)
}Vowel sounds that are so closely blended that they can be treated as a single vowel unit for the purposes of identification. ◦EX: oi  as in oil ◦       ou  as in out ◦       ow  as in cow ◦       oy  as in toy –Can you hear them? J
Prerequisites for phonics instruction
}Visual Discrimination } }Audio Discrimination } }Phonemic Awareness
}C & G } }Hard sound when followed by a,o,u – Cat—draw picture }Soft sound when followed e,i,y Ex: Center City had a cyclone.
}When two like consonants are next to each other, only one is sounded: EX: hall }Ch usually has the sound heard in church, although it sometimes sounds like sh or k (chef, chord) }When kn are the first two letters in a word, the k is not sounded. EX: knight }When wr are the w is not sounded. }When ck are the last two letters in a word, the sound of k is given (ex: check, brick)
}The sound of a vowel preceding r is usually neither long nor short.  R controlled vowel Ex: car, fir, her }In the vowel combinations oa,ee,ai, an ay the first vowel is generally long and the second one is not sounded EX: boat, feet, rain, play }The double vowels oi,oy, and ou usually form diphthongs.  The ow combination may also form a diphthong, although it frequently stands for the long o sound. Ex: boil
}If a word has only one vowel that vowel is at the end of the word, the vowel usually represents its long sound. EX: me, go }If a word has only one vowel and that vowel is not at the end of the word, the vowel usually represents its short sound. EX: set, man, cut, hop, list) }If a word has two vowels and one is a final e, the first vowel is usually long and the final e is not sounded: EX: cape, cute, cove, kite
Open syllables
}Hi– long }Go--long
Closed Syllables – the vowel is “closed up by a consonant”
}Usually has a short sound }Ho----t }Hot }No----t }not
Syllable division  
}Mark the vowels underline the first two vowels and mark a V underneath them. }Draw a bridge to connect the vowels }Label /c/ under all the consonants that fall between the two marked vowels. }Identify the syllable pattern. (vc/cv, v/cv, vc/c or v/v.) }Identify each syllable type (open etc.) }Read the word!
Syllable Types
}Closed: A short vowel sound –Example hit }Open: A long vowel sound – Example hi }Magic E-cake }Vowel teams/digraphs – vowel is long: see/boat }Bossy R/ R controlled vowel – EX: girl }Diphthong: ow,ou,oi- Example cow }Consonant/LE- example handle
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