Phlebotomy; Commonly Ordered Tests And Tube Colors

Commonly Orde Red Test
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Is a by-product of hemolysis. The reddish-yellow pigment is removed from the body by the liver through the excretion of bile. A rise in serum levels can occur if there is excessive destruction of Red Blood Cell's or if the liver is unable to excrete the normal amounts. A normal level rules out impairment of the excretory function of the liver or excessive hemolysis os RBC's. Excessive amounts give the skin a yellowish hue. Tube Color: Red Top
Is used as a screening test in diagnostic coagulation studies. It is ordered in conjunction with the management of anticoagulant therapy, to evaluate the extrinsic pathway, and to moniter coumadin therapy. Tube Color: Blue Top
PT (Prothrombin Time)
Is used primarily to detect disorders of blood lipids and to evaluate the risk potential for artherosclerosis. Tube Color: Red Top
Is an enzyme that is released into the circulation following the injury or death of cells in tissues of high metabolic activity. Following a severe injury, the enzyme level will rise in 12 hours and remain elevated for about 5 days. In the case of myocardial infarction, the enzyme may be increased 4-10 times its normal value. Liver disease also elevates the level to 10-100 times the normal level. Tube Color: Red Top
AST (Asparate Aminotransferase)
Test used to diagnose anemia. It is also helpful in conditions marked by a high turnover of myeloid cells, such as leukemia. Tube Color: Red Top
Vitamin B12
Is an electrolyte that offsets kidney activity for the discharge of toxins. It is essential for the balance of bodily fluid levels. Tube Color: Red Top
Electrolytes - Sodium
Is a non-protein nitrogen compound that helps maintain acid-base balance. This test is ordered to moniter the progression of severe hepatic disease and the effectiveness of therapy. Tube Color: Green Top, then pack with ice
Measures the interaction of platelets with the blood vessel wall and the formation of a clot. It is used to detect vascular abnormalities or deficiencies Tube Color: No tube
Bleeding Time (Duke and Ivy Methods)
Is an enzyme that is widely distributed in tissue. A significant concentration of this enzyme is found in the prostate gland. The test is used to diagnose metastatic cancer of the prostate. This enzyme is also present in high concentrations in seminal fluid and the test may be ordered in a rape investigation. Tube Color: Red Top
ACP (Acid Phosphatase)
Test conducted to check adrenal hormone function. Tube Color: Red Top
Is an enzyme originating mainly in the bone, liver, and placenta. It is used as a tumor marker and an index of liver and bone disease. Tube Color: Red Top
ALP (Alkanine Phosphatase)
Test used to determine the blood type of all blood donors and all potential blood recipients. Tube Color: Red Top
ABO (Blood Typing)
Is the rate at which RBC's settle out of unclotted blood in 1 hour. This test is often used to measure the progress of inflammatory disease. Tube Color: Lavendar Top
ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate)
Is used for basic screening in all patients. This test gives information about the patients diagnosis, response to treatment, and recovery. Tube Color: Lavendar Top
CBC (Complete Blood Count)
Is a testing done in conjunction with the ABO test. Tube Color: Red Top
RH Typing
Used to detect Septicemia Tube Color: Yellow top
Blood Culture
A common heart medication; test is necessary to perform therapeutic drug monitoring to manage the individuals drug therapy. Tube Color: Red top
A test used to diagnose impaired renal function. Tube Color: Red top
Test used to detect the presence of the anitbody to the human immunodeficiency virus. It is used to screen blood and blood products. A positive results will be repeated and confirmed by western blot or indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Tube Color: Red top
HIV Antibody
Test used as a diagnostic tool for monitering diabetes therapy. The test is ordered every 6-8 weeks and reflects diabetes control over several months. Tube Color: Lavendar top
Hemoglobin A1C
Test is used to confirm myocardial or pulmonary infarction. It is also used as a tumor marker in seminoma or germ cell testis tumor. Tube Color: Red top
LD (Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase)
Test measures the concentration of total amounts of this in the blood. It is used to evaluate parathyroid function and malignancies. Tube Color: Red top
Test done to detect the presence of alcohol, to indicate overdose, or alcohol impaired driving. Tube color: Red top
ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase)
This content measures cellular toxic waste. It is vital to the acid base balance and lung, kidney, and adrenal stability. Tube Color: Red top
Electrolyte- Carbon Dioxide
This is involved in adrenal, kidney, bladder, and bowel function. Elevated levels are seen in kidney and adrenal disorders, as well as bowel dysfunction. Decreased levels can be seen in diarrhea, infection, diabetes, and hypoadrenalism. Tube Color: Red top
Electrolyte- Chloride
This test is used to diagnose autoimmune diseases such as lupus, scleroderma, and rhematoid arthritis. Tube color: Red top
ANA (Antinuclear Antibody)
Is an enzyme found in the heart and skeletal muscles. The tesr is used to detect injury to the myocardium and muscle. It is important in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction and skeletal muscle diseases such as Muscular Dystrophy. It may also detect central nervous system disorders such as Reye's syndrome. It is divided into 3 isoenzymes. Tube color: Red top
CK (Creatine Kinase)
A glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of glucose. It is used in diagnostic situations where acute hepatitis, muscular atrophy, myocardial infarction, or malignancy is suspected. Tube Color: Red top
This test is used to assess fluid and electrolyte balance. It increases with dehydration and decreases with overhydration. Tube color: Red top
A mineral essential for the formation of RBC's and hemoglobin. It is also necessary for the function of the liver and spleen. Tube color: Red top
Test used to detect any disorder of glucose metabolism and as an aid in diabetes management. Tube color: Gray top
Glucose (Random and Fasting)
A genetic disorder/disease that can lead to mental retardation and brain damage if untreated. It can be detected in the blood of an affected child 4 days after birth and in a child's urine 2-8 weeks after birth. Tube color: None
PKU (Phenylketouria)
A mineral essential to heart and kidney function. It maintains heart rate, general muscle strength, normal nerve impulses, adrenal function, and the acid-base balance of the blood and urine. Increased levels can be seen in heart block, adrenal insufficiency and hypoventilation. Decreased levels are seen in diarrhea, hyperdrenal conditions, general weakness, fatigue, irregular heart beat, and chronic kidney disease. Tube color: Red top
Electrolyte- Potassium
Levels of this are used to detect pregnancy in women or trophoblastic tumors in men. Tube color: Red top
HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)
Test used to evaluate the intrinsic pathway. It is also used to moniter heparin therapy. Tube color: Blue top
APTT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time)
This test is used as an index to metabolic activity and for renal function. A reduced level can indicate renal failure, cirrhosis of the liver, alcoholism, and colitis (inflammtion of the colon). Tube color: Red top
An enzyme that is produced by the pancreas, salivary glands, liver, and fallopian tubes. It changes starch to sugar. If there is an inflammation of the pancreas or salivary glands, there is an increased level of this enzyme. Increased levels may also occur in mumps, alcohol poisoning, ruptured tubal pregnancy, and cholecystitis. Tube color: Red top
This test is used to evaluate clients with possible artherosclerosis. It is used as an indication of the body's ability to metabolize fat. Tube color: Lavendar
This test is used to diagnose pancreatitis. Tube color: Red top
This substance is formed in the liver. It is carried to the kidneys by the blood to be excreted in the urine. This test is used to measure the nitrogen portion of this substance. Tube color: Red top
BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen)
Measurement of this substance is often used in the evaluation of renal failure, gout, and leukemia. Tube color: Red top
Uric Acid
Is the primary storage form iron takes in the body. Tube color: Red top
This reflects serum anioncation balance and helps distinguish types of metabolic acidosis. Tube color: Red top
Electrolyte- Anion Gap

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