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Side ASide B
The process by which blood vessels are repaired after an injury. It starts from vascular contraction as an initial reaction to injury, then to clot formation, and finally removal of...
Four stages of Hemostatis
1. Vascular phase2. Platelet phase3. Coagulation phase4. Fibrinolysis
Stage one of hemostatis
Injury to a blood vessel causes it to constrict, slowing the flow of blood
Stage two of hemostatis
Injury to the endothelial lining causes platelets to adhere to it.Additional platelets stick to the site, forming a temporary platelet plug in a process called 'aggregation.'Vascular...
Stage three - coagulation phase
Involves a cascade of interactions of coagulation factors that converts the temporary platelet plug to a stable fibrin clot. The coagulation cascade involves an intrinsic system and...
Stage four - Fibrinolysis
This is the breakdown and removal of the clot. As tissue repair starts, plasmin (an enzyme) starts breaking down the fibrin in clot. Fibrin degradation products (FDPs) measurement is...
SPECIAL SPECIMEN HANDLING
SPECIAL SPECIMEN HANDLING
Some tests require that the specimen collected be kept warm until the serum is separated from the cells. Blood is collected in tubes pre-warmed in the incubator (or Chemical hand warmer)...
Some test require that the specimen collected be chilled immediately after collection in an ice and water mixture. The specimen then must be immediately transported to the lab for processing.
wrap in aluminum foild immediately after they are drawn.Exposure to light coudl alter the test results for: Bilrubin, beta-carotene, Vitamins A and B6, and porphyrins.
C.A. are antibodies produced in response to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection (atypical pneumonia). The antibodies formed may attach to red blood cells at temperatures below body temperature,...
Some tests require that the specimen collected be chilled immediately after collection in crushed ice or ice and water mixture. Likewise, the specimen must be immediately transported...
Specimens that require Chilling
- ammonia- Arterial Blood Gases (also determine PH)- Gastrin - Glucagon- Lactic Acid- Parathyroid Hormone- Partial Thromboplastin Time- Prothrombin Time
Specimens that require protection from Light
- Bilirubin-Carotene-Red Cell Folate- Serum Folate- Urine Porphyrins- Vitamin B12
Specimens requiring 37 degree Celsius Collection and transportation
- Cold agglutinin- Cryofibrinogen- Cryoglobulin (Cryoprotein)
ORDER OF DRAW
ORDER OF DRAW
Order of draw recommended by National Healthcareer Association
1. blood culture or vials2. sodium citrate tubes (e.g. blue tops)3. Serum tubes with or without clot activator or gel (e.g. red tops)4. Heparin tubes (e.g. green tops)5. EDTA tubes...
what should you do if a light blue is the only tube to be drawn
draw a red top tube first to eliminate potential contamination from the skin or needle.This is done to prevent thromboplastin released by the venipuncture from entering the light-blue...
Color Tube for EDTA
Color tube for heparin
color for Serum tube with or without clot activator or gel
Color for sodium citrate tube
Color for oxalate/fluoride tube
Lavender top tube additives
ADDITIVES- contains EDTA, which inhibits coagulation by binding to calcium present in the specimen.- K3 EDTA- Freeze-dried Na2GENERAL-for whole blood hematology determinations. - Tube...
Light-blue top tube
ADDITIVE- Contains the anticoagulant Sodium Citrate, which also prevents coagulation by binding calcium in the specimen- Different ratiosGENERAL- coagulation is also a part of hematology-...
Green top tube
ADDITIVE- sodium heparin- lithium heparin- ammonium heparinGENERAL- for plasma determinations in chemistry- tube inversions prevent clotting.- needs to be inverted 8 timesCOMMON TESTS-...
Gray top tube
ADDITIVE- Potassium oxalate (prevents clotting by binding calcium)- Sodium fluoride (preserves glucose for 3 days)- Lithium iodoacetate (preserves glucose for 24 hours)- Lithium iodoacetate/lithium...
Red/gray (speckled) top tube
ADDITIVE- Clot activator (glass particles, silica and celite which hastens clot formation - 15 minutes)-thixotropic gel, a serum separator. when centrifuged, it forms a barrier between...
ADDITIVE- none - additive or anticoagulantGENERAL- plain vaccum tube- no inversions- collected blood clots by normal coagulation process in 30 minutes- used for serum determinations...
ADDITIVES- contains potassium EDTAGENERAL- used by Blood Banks for molecular and testing of viral loads
ADDITIVES- Sodium heparin (8 inversions)- Na2 EDTA (8 inversions)- NONECOMMON TESTS- for trace element (lead)- toxicology determinations-Special stopper formulation offer lowest verified...
Brown test tube
ADDITIVE- Sodium heparin (8 inversions)COMMON TESTS- For lead determinations.- certified to contain less than .01 ug/ml (ppm) lead
ADDITIVE- Sodium polyanetholesulfonate (8 inversions)GENERAL - For blood culture specimen collections in microbiolog