Philosophy Exam #2

46 cards

Midterm Exam #2 Study


 
  
Created Nov 19, 2009
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1
THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT
 
An ontological argument for the existence of God attempts the method...
2
THE TELEOLOGICAL ARGUMENT
 
A teleological argument, or argument from design, is an argument for the...
3
THE COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENT
 
The cosmological argument is an argument for the existence of a First Cause...
4
PRIORI ARGUMENT
 
A priori knowledge or justification is independent of experience (for example...
5
POSTERIORI ARGUMENT
 
a posteriori knowledge or justification is dependent on experience or empirical...
6
THE PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON
 
PSR claims that (a) For everything that exists, there must be an explanation or a reason why...
7
THE PROBLEM OF EVIL
 
God is omnipoten (all-powerful), God is omnibenevolent (all-good), and yet there is evil in...
8
Adequate Solution 1
 
Denying that there is evil in the world. a. Good cannot exist without evil. b. Evil is a...
9
Adequate Solution 2
 
The second strategy is to claim that God is not responsible for teh evil in the world - people...
10
THE CONCERN AND FOCUS OF EPISTEMOLOGY
 
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that addresses fundamental questions regarding propositional...
11
TRADITIONAL ACCOUNT OF KNOWLEDGE
 
Propositional knowledge is a matter of knowing that something is the case. Knowledge that some...
12
RATIONALISM
 
The view that the human mind is capable of a direct apprehension of certain truths about the...
13
EMPIRICISM
 
The view that our empirical knowledge (knowledge of the world) arises entirely out of sense...
14
THE GETTIER PROBLEM
 
Argues that the traditional account of knowledge (the justified true belief account) is not...
15
GETTIER'S POSITION WITH THE RESPECT TO THE TRADITIONAL ACCOUNT OF KNOWLEDGE
 
He begins by noting that his refutation of the traditional account of knowledge will work for...
16
GETTIER CONDITION 1
 
Condition 1: It is possible for a person to be justified in believing a proposition that is,...
17
GETTIER CONDITION 2
 
For any proposition P, if S is justified in believing P, and P entails Q, and S deduces Q from...
18
DESCARTES' ACCOUNT OF KNOWLEDGE
 
Descartes wants to find a way of ensuring that his beliefs are true. Any belief inferred from...
19
FOUNDATIONALISM
 
The view that knowledge has a foundational structure - certain basic beliefs, which are self-justifing...
20
DESCARTES DEFINED KNOWLEDGE
 
As justified true belief - for Descartes, one is justified in believing something, only if...
21
DESCARTES PROJECT
 
Descartes project is to find some belief (or set of beliefs) which can be known with certainty,...
22
DESCARTES METHODOLOGY
 
Descartes method is to find a way to doubt everything that can be doubted. This is known as...
23
SKEPTICAL ARGUMENTS
 
A logically possible scenario in which everything appears exactly as it is now appears but...
24
CANONICAL SKEPTICAL ARGUMENT
 
a. A statement of the particular skeptical hypothesis b. The argument   The first premise,...
25
THE DREAM HYPOTHESIS
 
It is possible that one is, at any given moment sleeping and having only dream experiences,...
26
THE DREAM ARGUMENT
 
1. If I know that P (evil genius, that I am sitting in front of the computer), then I can rule...
27
THE EVIL GENIUS HYPOTHESIS
 
It is possible that there is an all powerful evil genius bent on deceiving me, such that he...
28
THE EVIL GENIUS ARGUMENT
 
1. If I know that P (evil genius, that I am sitting in front of the computer), then I can rule...
29
UNTRUSTWORTHINESS ARGUMENT
 
1. My senses sometime deceive me.   2. If my senses sometimes deceive me, then maybe...
30
UNTRUSTWORTHINESS OBJECTIONS
 
1. The above examples of my senses failing me are all examples of beliefs that were produced...
31
THE COGITO
 
Descartes claim that he can know with certainty that he thinks and that he exists.   I...
32
DUALISM
 
It is a theory which claims that there are two distinct kinds of substances, and mental states...
33
IDEALISM
 
It is a theory that claims that there is no non-mental (i.e. physical) substances. Things that...
34
MATERIALISM
 
It is a theory that claims that there is no distinct non-physical substance, and that what...
35
DESCARTES ARGUMENT FOR DUALISM PART ONE THE CONCEIVABILITY ARGUMENT
 
Since we can conceive of the mind and body as distinct, it is possible for the one to exist...
36
DESCARTES ARGUMENT FOR DUALISM PART TWO THE ARGUMENT FROM LEIBNIZ'S LAW
 
If x and y do not have all the same properties, then x is not identical to y.   (Alternatively:...
37
THE WAX EXAMPLE
 
Descartes examines a piece of wax. It has a particular taste (like sweet honey), color, shape,...
38
HUME'S IDEA
 
Ideas are like thoughts and concepts - cognitive things, whereas, impressions are more like...
39
HUME'S IMPRESSIONS
 
Impressions are much more vivid than ideas. Compare the difference between feeling something...
40
HUME'S FORK
 
This is a distinction about propositions. Some propositions state or purport to state matters...
41
THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION
 
Past experience, according to Hume, can give direct and certain information about past events....
42
HUME'S SOLUTION TO HIS OWN SKEPTICAL PROBLEMS
 
Hume says that we needn't "fear" this skeptical philosophy because "there is no danger that...
43
HUME'S DISCUSSION OF CAUSATION SECTION VII
 
To find the impressions which give rise to our ideas of causation, particularly our idea of...
44
HUME'S DISCUSSION OF CAUSATION SECTION IV
 
PUN: Instances of which we have had no experience must resemble those of which we have had...
45
THE SUBSTANCE VIEW
 
A thing is composed of various properties, plus an underlying substance (or substratum) to...
46
THE BUNDLE VIEW
 
A thing is merely a collection of properties.


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