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Personality


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extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
 
the five-factor model of personality traits
preconscious
 
contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that cane asily be retrieved
unconscious
 
contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior
rationalization
 
creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior
repression
 
keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
projection
 
attributing one's own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another
displacement
 
diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target
reaction formation
 
behaving in a way that's exactly the opposite of one's true feelings
regression
 
a reversion to immature patterns of behavior
identification
 
bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group
collective unconscious
 
a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past
striving for superiority
 
a universal deive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life's challenges
compensation
 
involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one's abilities
archetypes
 
emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning
self-efficacy
 
refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes
incongruence
 
the degree of disparity between one's self-concept and one's actual experience
self-concept
 
a collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior
need for self-actualization
 
the need to fulfill one's potential
self-report inventories
 
personality tests that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their characteristic behavior
projective tests
 
ask participants to respond to vague, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subjects' needs, feelings, and personality traits
hindsight bias
 
the tendency to mold one's interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out

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