Patho TEST 2 CANCER 1-50

Cancer Portio N Of The
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No matter the carcinogen, what area of the cell is altered that will trigger the changes necessary for cells to become cancerous?
The DNA, the geno

What is lag time? Why does lag time suggest that cancer is a multi-step process involving a series of genetic mutations?

Lag time: time from the intro of the carcenigen and the consist of the carcentigen that cause DNA damage to cause cancer.
The more cigarettes the more DNA damage.
the more its exposed to threat the quicker the cancer will show.

What are the five phases of the cell cycle and describe what occurs in each.

Go- Quiescence, the sit there and wait. If the see the antigen then it kicks back in to G1 phase.
G1- cell growht and production of structural protiens and enzymes.
S- all the DNA is duplicated.
G2- the building the spindle appreatus

What is the purpose of "checkpoints" within the cell cycle?
They prevent the cell from progressing if there is any DNA damage.

Why is the molecule p53 called "the guardian of the genome"? Include "checkpoints" in your answer.
P53 will stop cell during cell right before S phase and the M phase. The checkpoints are here to stop any damaged goods from entering the system.

What two things can p53 do if there is DNA damage? Include "cell cycle arrest" in your answer. Why is p53 called a "tumor suppressor gene"?

P53- can repair the DNA, if it cant repair than it kills the cell.
Maintenace of Genome Integrity.
Its called "tumor suppressor gene" because it controls what comes in and out of the cell.

What 4 types of proteins (specific names) are involved in the cell’s typical growth-control pathway?

Growth factor, Growth Factor Receptor, Signaling Enzymes (kinases), Transcription Factors.
Transcription- makes messenger RNA, then this continues on and helps with the growth.

What are oncogenes in relationship to proto-oncogenes?
Oncogenes are the mutation of proto-oncogenes.

Genetically, are oncogenes dominant or recessive over proto-oncogenes?
Dominant over proto-oncogenes

Are tumor suppressor genes dominant or recessive?
Dominant because both of the tumor suppressor have to be knocked out for the TSG to stop functioning.

What two deadly characteristics do malignant cancers have that benign tumors do not?

Invade and metastasize to other parts of the body.
Malignant cancers move to different parts of the body while benign just sit and grow.

Give two examples (one of the female gender and one of the male gender) of how benign tumors (i.e., hyperplasia) can cause "complications" .

Male- can squeez on the urethra and cause complications of urination on the male.
Female- cause prolonged mestural bleeding, and pelvic cancer,

Distinguish between hyperplasia and dysplasia in terms of cell division, structure, and arrangement. How is cervical dysplasia identified?

Hyperplasia vs. Dysplasia
Dysplasia- has excessive cell proloferation also have loss of normal tissue arrange,ents and cell structure.
Hyperplasia- just has excessive cell proloferation.
Identified by a papsmere.

Define angiogenesis and how does it allow cancer in situ to become invasive? What are four factors that could be released by cancer cells that would promote angiogenesis?

Angiogenesis- the growth of blood vessels. allows more oxy, protiens needed for growth.
Vaso endo growth factor,
PDGF- platelet derived growth factor, FGF-fibroblast growth factor.

What are matrix metalloproteinases and how do they allow tumor cells to invade?
Matrix M- Enzyemes that will degrade the collogen and glycoprotiens which allows cancer cells to invade tissue

What two factors reduce the chance of cancer cells, once entering the blood, to metastasized to other parts of the body?

Mechanically distroyed by the stress boucing agains blood vessels walls.
Encounter CD8 T cells and NK cells.

How do cancer cells "select" the tissue to which it metastasizes? What site do metastatic prostate cancer commonly select?

They have specific protiens that interact with surface protiends on the endotheial cell and the vasculature of the tissue that they mastastize to.
The bone.

What is meant by a 5-year survival rate?
the % of patients that live atleast 5 yrs after beings diagnosed with cancer.

survival rates for breast cancer, though improved, show a variation amongst the two classes. What are they and what is the main reason for this fact?

The least deprived or the affluent and the most deprived or the less affluent.
20-33 Matching. PG 49 on cancer lecture

28.D, 29.C, 30.D, 31.E, 32.B, 33.A

What is Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)? Why has its effectiveness for early detection of prostate cancer been questioned?

Protien produced by the cells of the prostate gland.
Its false positive prone, and false negative prone.

What is the reference range for PSA? What is the "suspicious" range?

Normal - below 4
Suspiciouws- 4-10

Why is PSA considered false-positive prone? False-negative prone?

False positive-7/10 men will not hace prostate cancer.
False negative-2.5/10 men with prostate cancer do not have elevatio PSa

A PSA test is used in combination with what to screen both asymptomatic and symptomatic men for prostate cancer?
Digital rectal examine.

What characteristics of the prostate during digital rectal exam (DRE) would indicate abnormalities?
Lumps enlargements and firm areas.

If the PSA and DRE are found to be abnormal, what might be the follow up procedures?
Unltrasound Scan

M-wounld mean presence of Metastasis
N- would mean involvement of LYMPH NODES
T-size of tumor.
40.J, 41.C, 42.E, 43.F, 44.I, 45.B, 46.B, 47.A, 48.C, 49.G, 50.H

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