Patho TEST 2 CANCER 1-50

27 cards

Cancer portio n of the


 
  
Created Oct 3, 2011
by
dmmcdonald

 

 
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1

No matter the carcinogen, what area of the cell is altered that will trigger the changes...

 
The DNA, the geno
2

What is lag time? Why does lag time suggest that cancer is a multi-step process involving...

 

Lag time: time from the intro of the carcenigen and the consist of the carcentigen that...

3

What are the five phases of the cell cycle and describe what occurs in each.

 

M-MItosis

Go- Quiescence, the sit there and wait. If the see the antigen then it...

4

What is the purpose of "checkpoints" within the cell cycle?

 
They prevent the cell from progressing if there is any DNA damage.
5

Why is the molecule p53 called "the guardian of the genome"? Include "checkpoints" in...

 
P53 will stop cell during cell right before S phase and the M phase. The checkpoints are here...
6

What two things can p53 do if there is DNA damage? Include "cell cycle arrest" in your...

 

P53- can repair the DNA, if it cant repair than it kills the cell.

Maintenace of...

7

What 4 types of proteins (specific names) are involved in the cell’s typical growth-control...

 

Growth factor, Growth Factor Receptor, Signaling Enzymes (kinases), Transcription Factors....

8

What are oncogenes in relationship to proto-oncogenes?

 
Oncogenes are the mutation of proto-oncogenes.
9

Genetically, are oncogenes dominant or recessive over proto-oncogenes?

 
Dominant over proto-oncogenes
10

Are tumor suppressor genes dominant or recessive?

 
Dominant because both of the tumor suppressor have to be knocked out for the TSG to stop functioning.
11

What two deadly characteristics do malignant cancers have that benign tumors do not?

 

Invade and metastasize to other parts of the body.

Malignant cancers move to different...

12

Give two examples (one of the female gender and one of the male gender) of how benign...

 

Male- can squeez on the urethra and cause complications of urination on the male.

Female-...

13

Distinguish between hyperplasia and dysplasia in terms of cell division, structure, and...

 

Hyperplasia vs. Dysplasia

Dysplasia- has excessive cell proloferation also have...

14

Define angiogenesis and how does it allow cancer in situ to become invasive? What are...

 

Angiogenesis- the growth of blood vessels. allows more oxy, protiens needed for growth.

Vaso...

15

What are matrix metalloproteinases and how do they allow tumor cells to invade?

 
Matrix M- Enzyemes that will degrade the collogen and glycoprotiens which allows cancer cells...
16

What two factors reduce the chance of cancer cells, once entering the blood, to metastasized...

 

Mechanically distroyed by the stress boucing agains blood vessels walls.

Encounter...

17

How do cancer cells "select" the tissue to which it metastasizes? What site do metastatic...

 

They have specific protiens that interact with surface protiends on the endotheial cell...

18

What is meant by a 5-year survival rate?

 
the % of patients that live atleast 5 yrs after beings diagnosed with cancer.
19

survival rates for breast cancer, though improved, show a variation amongst the two classes....

 

The least deprived or the affluent and the most deprived or the less affluent.

 

20
20-33 Matching. PG 49 on cancer lecture
 

20.E,21.D,22.A,23.E,24.D,25.D,26.C,27.B,

28.D, 29.C, 30.D, 31.E, 32.B, 33.A

21

What is Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)? Why has its effectiveness for early detection...

 

Protien produced by the cells of the prostate gland.

Its false positive prone, and...

22

What is the reference range for PSA? What is the "suspicious" range?

 

Normal - below 4

Suspiciouws- 4-10

23

Why is PSA considered false-positive prone? False-negative prone?

 

False positive-7/10 men will not hace prostate cancer.

False negative-2.5/10 men...

24

A PSA test is used in combination with what to screen both asymptomatic and symptomatic...

 
Digital rectal examine.
25

What characteristics of the prostate during digital rectal exam (DRE) would indicate abnormalities?...

 
Lumps enlargements and firm areas.
26

If the PSA and DRE are found to be abnormal, what might be the follow up procedures?

 
Unltrasound Scan
27

40-50

M-wounld mean presence of Metastasis

N- would mean involvement of...

 
40.J, 41.C, 42.E, 43.F, 44.I, 45.B, 46.B, 47.A, 48.C, 49.G, 50.H

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