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Side ASide B
Which of the following does NOT contribute to water conservation?A. the collecting ductB. the countercurrent multiplierC. the countercurrent exchange systemD. diureticsE. the length...
All of the following are composed of cuboidal epithelium EXCEPTA. the thin segment of the nephron loopB. the thick segment of the nephron loopC. the collecting ductD. the proximal convoluted...
B. the thick segment of the nephron loop
Hypocalcemia, or low blood calcium level, stimulatesA. a decrease in aldosterone productionB. secretion of parathyroid hormoneC. secretion of reninD. an increase in blood urea nitrogenE....
B. secretion of parathyroid hormone
In the nephron, the fluid that immediate preceeds the urine is known asA. plasmaB. glomerular filtrateC. tubular fluidD. renal filtrateE. medullary filtrate
C. tubular fluid
The average person has approximately ? nephrons per kidneyA. 1.2 millionB. 2.4 millionC. 3.6 millionD. 4.8 millionE. 5.6 million
A. 1.2 million
Which of the following is not an organ of the urinary system?A. urethraB. collecting ductC. ureterD. urinary bladderE. kidney
B. collecting duct
In life-threatening starvation, the kidneys synthesize glucose byA. secreting erythropoietinB. secreting reninC. deaminating amino acidsD. contributing to calcium homeostasisE. producing...
C. deaminating amino acids
this byproduct of protein catabolism constitutes approximatey one-half of all nitrogenous wasteA. ureaB. creatinineC. uric acidD. azotemiaE. ammonia
Which organ system does NOT excrete waste?A. the urinary systemB. the cardiovascular systemC. the integumentary systemD. the digestive systemE. the respiratory system
B. the cardiovascular system
Which is not a function of the kidneys?A. they regulate osmolarity of the body fluidsB. the fight osteoporosis by synthesizing vitamin DC. they help control blood pressureD. They release...
E. the indirectly increase oxyhemoblobin
The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infection is known asA. the perirenal fat capsuleB. the renal fasciaC. the hilumD. the fibrous...
B. the renal fascia
A single lobe of a kidney is comprised ofA. two calyces and a renal pelvisB. one pyramid and the overlying cortexC. one major calyx and all of its minor calycesD. a renal medulla and...
D. a renal medulla and two renal columns
A renal pyramid voids urine into A. the minor calyxB. the major calyxC. the renal medullaD. the renal papillaE. the ureter
A. the minor calyx
Which of these correctly traces blood flow from the renal artery into the renal cortex?A. arcuate a->interlobar a->afferent arteriole->interlobular aB. interlobar a->interlobular...
C. segmental a->interlobar a->arcuate->interlobular a
The transition from an afferent to an efferent arteriole occurs in the A. glomerulusD. medullaC. cortical radiate veinsD. peritubular capillariesE. vasa recta
Blood plasma is filtered in theA. renal tubuleB. renal corpuscleC. renal capsuleD. renal columnE. renal calyx
B. renal corpuscle
Which of these form the inner layer of the glomerular capsule capsule and wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus?A. macula densa cellsB. mesangial cellsC. nephrocytesD. podocytesE....
Which are primarily responsible for maintaining the salinity gradient of the renal medulla?A. cortical nephronsB. juxtamedullary nephronsC. collecting ductsD. proximal convoluted tubulesE....
B. juxtamedullary nephrons
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate byA. the renal corpuscleB. the proximal convoluted tubuleC. the distal convoluted tubuleD. the glomerular capillariesE....
B. the proximal convoluted tubule
In a healthy kidney, very little ? is filtered by the glomerulusA. amino acidsB. electrolytesC. glucoseD. vitaminsE. protein
Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?A. vasoconstriction of the efferent arterioleB. a drop in oncotic pressureC. vasodilation of the afferent arterioleD....
D. vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
The mechanism of stabilizing the GFR based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when stretched is known as what?A. renal autoregulationB. the myogenic mechanismC. tubuloglomerular...
B. the myogenic mechanism
In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, ? stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constriction of the outletA. azotemiaB. sodium chlorideC. parathyroid...
E. angiotensin II
Assuming all the other values are normal, calculate the net filtration pressure in a patient with a drop in capsular hydrostatic pressure to 8mm Hg (BHP(60)-COP(32)-CP)A. 10 mm Hg outB....
B. 20 mm Hg out
Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen released from the ? to form angiotensin IA. lungsB. kidneysC. liverD. heartE. spleen
Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here, the ? of all the nephrons collectively account for about 6% of one's daily resting ATP and caloric consumptionA. proximal...
A. proximal convoluted tubules
Proximal convoluted tubules are responsible for reabsorbing all of the following EXCEPTA. potassiumB. sodium chlorideC. hydrogen ionsD. ureaE. water
Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in A. reabsorption of all the soluteB. a renal clearance of zeroC. a net filtration...
D. appearance of that solute in the urine
Which of the following is a direct result of the ADH?A. decreased urine volumeB. decreased urine molarityC. increased urine volumeD. increased urine salinityE. increased urine acidity
A. decreased urine volume
Aldosterone acts onA. the proximal convoluted tubuleB. the medullary portion of the collecting ductC. the descending limb of the nephron loopD. the distal convoluted tubuleE. the glomerulus
B. the medullary portion of the collecting duct
Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure by all of the following means EXCEPTA. increasing glomerular filtration rateB. inhibiting renin and aldosterone secretionC....
A. increasing glomerular filtration rate
Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?A. glomerulusB. proximal convoluted...
D. collecting duct
The countercurrent multiplier recaptures ? and is based on fluid flowing in ? direction in two adjacent tubuluesA. potassium; the sameB. calcium; the oppositeC. calcium; the sameD....
D. sodium; the opposite
The overall purpose of the countercurrent exchange system isA. to supply salt and urea to the renal medullaB. to supply nutrients and oxygen to the renal cortexC. to supply nutrients...
A. to supply salt and urea to the renal medulla
Which of these induces renin secretion, constricts afferent arterioles, and reduces GFR, and reduces urine volumeA. aldosteroneB. ADHC. parathyroid hormoneD. norepinephrineE. angiotensin...
Normal urine from a healthy person can be expected to contain all of the following EXCEPTA. creatinineB. urobilinC. glucoseD. ammoniaE. magnesium
Which of the following is not found in the ureter?A. adventitiaB. two layers of smooth muscleC. three layers of smooth muscleD. transitional epitheliumE. skeletal muscle
C. three layers of smooth muscle
What is the term for the pigment responsible for the color of urine?A. monochromeB. urochromeC. cyanchromeD. multichromeE. pyuria
Which muscle is located in the bladder?A. detrusorB. distractorC. pubococcygeusD. corpus spongiosumE. corpus cavernosum
Which is not a portion of the urethra?A. external urethral orificeB. internal urethral sphincterC. prostatic urethraD. membranous urethraE. spongy urethra
B. internal urethral sphincter
Micturition is another term forA. the production of nitrogenous wastesB. glomerular filtrationC. the countercurrent multiplier processD. inflammation of the urinary bladderE. the elimination...
E. the elimination of urine
The ureters pass anterior to the bladder and enter it from below T or F?
Parathyroid hormone increases phosphate excretion by the proximal convoluted tubule as well as promotes synthesis of calcitriol T or F?
The thick segment of the nephron loop is impermeable to water T or F?
Glomerular filtration occurs because glomerular oncotic pressure overrides glomerular blood pressure T or F?
Angiotensin-converting enzyme is found only in the kidneys and converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I T or F?
Cells in the cleft between the efferent arterioles and among the capillaries of the glomerulus are known as mesangial cells T or F?
The fenestrated endothelium of the capillary has pores small enough to exclude blood cells from the filtrate T or F?
A buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one T or F?
The three physiological buffer systems are urinary, digestive, and respiratory T or F?
The kidneys neutralize more acid or base than any other buffer system T or F?
Acidosis is a pH lower than 7, whereas alkalosis is a pH higher than 7 T or F?
The most toxic of our metabolic wastes are nitrogenous wastes T or F?
? represents the complete chemical reaction for the bicarbonate buffer systemA. CO2+H2O<->H2CO3<->HCO3+H+B. CO2+H2O<->HCO+H+<->H2CO3C. H2CO3<->CO2+H2O<->HCO3+H+D....
Tissue fluid normally has a pH ofA. 6.95-7.05B. 7.05-7.15C. 7.15-7.25D. 7.25-7.35E. 7.35-7.45
The major chemical buffer systems of the body are the ? systemsA. urinary and respiratoryB. urinary and digestiveC. bicarbonate, phosphate, and proteinD. bicarbonate, nucleic acids,...
C. bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein
A weak baseA. binds little OH- and has a weal effect on pHB. binds lots of OH- and has a strong effect on pHC. binds little H+ and has a weak effect on pHD. resists change in OH-E....
C. binds little H+ and has a weak effect on pH
When the renal tubules secret hydrogen ions into the tubular fluid, they ? at the same timeA. secret potasssiumB. secret sodiumC.reabsorb potassiumD. secrete chlorideE. reabsorb sodium
D. secrete chloride
The pH of the intracellular fluid is buffered mainly by A. proteinsB. the bicarbonate systemC. the phosphate systemD. the carbonic acid systemE. ammonium ions
C. the phosphate systetm
The bicarbonate system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, whichA. supplies the buffer system with CO2B. supplies the buffer...
A. supplies the buffer system with CO2
Proteins can buffer a drop in pH by their ? side group and can buffer an increase in pH by their ? side groupsA. -NH2; -PO4B. -PO4; -COOHC. -NH2; -COOHD. -COOH; -NH2E. -PO4; -NH2
C. NH2; -COOH
In acidosis, the kidneys compensate byA. secreting more bicarbonateB. secreting more ammoniaC. secreting more sodiumD. reabsorbing more hydrogen ionsE. reabsorbing more ammonia
A. secreting more bicarbonate
What protein(s) is/are the most important buffer(s) in blood plasmaA. fibrinogenB. albuminC. alpha globulinsD. gamma globulinsE. transferrin
ADHA. stimulates angiotensin II secretionB. promotes water conservationC. stimulates hypothalamic osmoreceptorsD. inhibits salivation and thirstE. targets the cerebral cortex
B. promotes water conservation
Chloride homeostatis is achieved mainly as a result of ? homeostasisA. H2PO4-B. PO43-C. HCO3-D. Na+E. K+
Calcium concentration is regulated byA. hormonesB. sodium and calcium concentration in plasmaC. chloride and phosphate concentration in plasmaD. the parasympathetic nervous systemE....
C. chloride and phosphate concentration in plasma
An antiport system on the basal side of renal tubule cellsA. transports bicarbonate from the tubular fluid back into the tubule cellsB. transports H+ in both directions across the epitheliumC....
E. exchanges H+ for Na+
AldosteroneA. increases both Na+ and K+ reabsorptionB. increases both Na+ and K+ secretionC. increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretionD. reduces Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretionE....
A. increases both Na+ and K+ reabsorption
When blood volume and pressure are too highA. ADH release is inhibitedB. ADH release is stimulatedC. rental tubules reabsorb more waterD. renal tubules reabsorb more sodiumE. the kidneys...
A. ADH release is inhibited
? does NOT stimulate aldosterone secretionA. hypotensionB. hyponatremiaC. hyperkalemiaD. high blood sodium concentrationE. high blood potassium concentration
D. high blood sodium concentration