A&P Exam 3

Test 3. Study Your Ass Off
 
Created May 2, 2012
by powella6
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Side ASide B
Which of the following does NOT contribute to water conservation?A. the collecting ductB. the...
D. diuretics
All of the following are composed of cuboidal epithelium EXCEPTA. the thin segment of the nephron...
B. the thick segment of the nephron loop
Hypocalcemia, or low blood calcium level, stimulatesA. a decrease in aldosterone productionB....
B. secretion of parathyroid hormone
In the nephron, the fluid that immediate preceeds the urine is known asA. plasmaB. glomerular...
C. tubular fluid
The average person has approximately ? nephrons per kidneyA. 1.2 millionB. 2.4 millionC. 3.6...
A. 1.2 million
Which of the following is not an organ of the urinary system?A. urethraB. collecting ductC....
B. collecting duct
In life-threatening starvation, the kidneys synthesize glucose byA. secreting erythropoietinB....
C. deaminating amino acids
this byproduct of protein catabolism constitutes approximatey one-half of all nitrogenous wasteA....
A. urea
Which organ system does NOT excrete waste?A. the urinary systemB. the cardiovascular systemC....
B. the cardiovascular system
Which is not a function of the kidneys?A. they regulate osmolarity of the body fluidsB. the...
E. the indirectly increase oxyhemoblobin
The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infection...
B. the renal fascia
A single lobe of a kidney is comprised ofA. two calyces and a renal pelvisB. one pyramid and...
D. a renal medulla and two renal columns
A renal pyramid voids urine into A. the minor calyxB. the major calyxC. the renal medullaD....
A. the minor calyx
Which of these correctly traces blood flow from the renal artery into the renal cortex?A. arcuate...
C. segmental a->interlobar a->arcuate->interlobular a
The transition from an afferent to an efferent arteriole occurs in the A. glomerulusD....
A. glomerulus
Blood plasma is filtered in theA. renal tubuleB. renal corpuscleC. renal capsuleD. renal columnE....
B. renal corpuscle
Which of these form the inner layer of the glomerular capsule capsule and wrap around the capillaries...
D. podocytes
Which are primarily responsible for maintaining the salinity gradient of the renal medulla?A....
B. juxtamedullary nephrons
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate byA. the renal corpuscleB....
B. the proximal convoluted tubule
In a healthy kidney, very little ? is filtered by the glomerulusA. amino acidsB. electrolytesC....
E. protein
Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?A. vasoconstriction of the...
D. vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
The mechanism of stabilizing the GFR based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when...
B. the myogenic mechanism
In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, ? stimulates constriction of the glomerular...
E. angiotensin II
Assuming all the other values are normal, calculate the net filtration pressure in a patient...
B. 20 mm Hg out
Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen released from the ? to form angiotensin IA. lungsB. kidneysC....
C. liver
Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here, the ? of all the nephrons collectively...
A. proximal convoluted tubules
Proximal convoluted tubules are responsible for reabsorbing all of the following EXCEPTA. potassiumB....
E. water
Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result...
D. appearance of that solute in the urine
Which of the following is a direct result of the ADH?A. decreased urine volumeB. decreased...
A. decreased urine volume
Aldosterone acts onA. the proximal convoluted tubuleB. the medullary portion of the collecting...
B. the medullary portion of the collecting duct
Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure by all of the following means...
A. increasing glomerular filtration rate
Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while...
D. collecting duct
The countercurrent multiplier recaptures ? and is based on fluid flowing in ? direction in...
D. sodium; the opposite
The overall purpose of the countercurrent exchange system isA. to supply salt and urea to the...
A. to supply salt and urea to the renal medulla
Which of these induces renin secretion, constricts afferent arterioles, and reduces GFR, and...
B. ADH
Normal urine from a healthy person can be expected to contain all of the following EXCEPTA....
B. urobilin
Which of the following is not found in the ureter?A. adventitiaB. two layers of smooth muscleC....
C. three layers of smooth muscle
What is the term for the pigment responsible for the color of urine?A. monochromeB. urochromeC....
E. pyuria
Which muscle is located in the bladder?A. detrusorB. distractorC. pubococcygeusD. corpus spongiosumE....
A. detrusor
Which is not a portion of the urethra?A. external urethral orificeB. internal urethral sphincterC....
B. internal urethral sphincter
Micturition is another term forA. the production of nitrogenous wastesB. glomerular filtrationC....
E. the elimination of urine
The ureters pass anterior to the bladder and enter it from below T or F?
False
Parathyroid hormone increases phosphate excretion by the proximal convoluted tubule as well...
True
The thick segment of the nephron loop is impermeable to water T or F?
True
Glomerular filtration occurs because glomerular oncotic pressure overrides glomerular blood...
False
Angiotensin-converting enzyme is found only in the kidneys and converts angiotensinogen to...
False
Cells in the cleft between the efferent arterioles and among the capillaries of the glomerulus...
True
The fenestrated endothelium of the capillary has pores small enough to exclude blood cells...
True
A buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one T or F?
True
The three physiological buffer systems are urinary, digestive, and respiratory T or F?
False
The kidneys neutralize more acid or base than any other buffer system T or F?
True
Acidosis is a pH lower than 7, whereas alkalosis is a pH higher than 7 T or F?
True
The most toxic of our metabolic wastes are nitrogenous wastes T or F?
True
? represents the complete chemical reaction for the bicarbonate buffer systemA. CO2+H2O<->H2CO3<->HCO3+H+B....
A. CO2+H2O<->H2CO3<->HCO3+H+
Tissue fluid normally has a pH ofA. 6.95-7.05B. 7.05-7.15C. 7.15-7.25D. 7.25-7.35E. 7.35-7.45
E. 7.35-7.45
The major chemical buffer systems of the body are the ? systemsA. urinary and respiratoryB....
C. bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein
A weak baseA. binds little OH- and has a weal effect on pHB. binds lots of OH- and has a strong...
C. binds little H+ and has a weak effect on pH
When the renal tubules secret hydrogen ions into the tubular fluid, they ? at the same timeA....
D. secrete chloride
The pH of the intracellular fluid is buffered mainly by A. proteinsB. the bicarbonate...
C. the phosphate systetm
The bicarbonate system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of...
A. supplies the buffer system with CO2
Proteins can buffer a drop in pH by their ? side group and can buffer an increase in pH by...
C. NH2; -COOH
In acidosis, the kidneys compensate byA. secreting more bicarbonateB. secreting more ammoniaC....
A. secreting more bicarbonate
What protein(s) is/are the most important buffer(s) in blood plasmaA. fibrinogenB. albuminC....
B. albumin
ADHA. stimulates angiotensin II secretionB. promotes water conservationC. stimulates hypothalamic...
B. promotes water conservation
Chloride homeostatis is achieved mainly as a result of ? homeostasisA. H2PO4-B. PO43-C. HCO3-D....
D. Na+
Calcium concentration is regulated byA. hormonesB. sodium and calcium concentration in plasmaC....
C. chloride and phosphate concentration in plasma
An antiport system on the basal side of renal tubule cellsA. transports bicarbonate from the...
E. exchanges H+ for Na+
AldosteroneA. increases both Na+ and K+ reabsorptionB. increases both Na+ and K+ secretionC....
A. increases both Na+ and K+ reabsorption
When blood volume and pressure are too highA. ADH release is inhibitedB. ADH release is stimulatedC....
A. ADH release is inhibited
? does NOT stimulate aldosterone secretionA. hypotensionB. hyponatremiaC. hyperkalemiaD. high...
D. high blood sodium concentration


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