A&P BIO 141: Bones And Skeletal Tissues

The Skeletal System Overview For BIO 141, Anatomy & Physiology. Notes From Textbook And Class.When Studying From These Cards, Pay Close Attention To bold And Colored Areas Within The Text. These Are Important Terms And Generally Focus On The Specific Information That Will Be Asked In Class. There Are Essay Questions Presented For Practice And Other Key Points To Review Over As You Go. ...
 
Created Oct 22, 2009
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Skeletal cartilage
Is made of some variety of cartilage tissue, which consists primarily of water. The high...
The perichondrium
The perichondrium acts like a girdle to resist outward expansion when the cartilage is compressed....
Three types of cartilage tissue in the body:
hyalineelasticfibrocartilageAll three types have the same basic components - cells called chondrocytes,...
Hyaline cartilages
Which look like frosted glass when freshly exposed, provide support when flexibility and resilience....
Elastic cartilages
Look very much like hyaline cartilages, but they contain more stretchy elastic fibers and so...
Fibrocartilages
Are highly compressible and have great tensile strength. The perfect intermediate between hyaline...
Appositional growth
In appositional growth, cartilage-forming cells in the surrounding perichondrium secrete new...
Interstitial growth
In interstitial growth, the lacunae-bound chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding...
Axial skeleton
the axial skeleton forms the long axis of the body and includes the bones of the skull, vertebral...
Appendicular skeleton
The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the girdles...
Long bones
As their name suggests, are considerably longer than they are wide. A long bone has a shaft...
Short bones
Are roughly cube shaped. The bones of the wrist and ankle are examples.
Sesamoid bones
Are a special type of short bone that form in a tendon. They vary in size and number in different...
Flat bones
Are thin, flattened, and usually a bit curved. The sternum (breastbone), scapulae (shoulder...
Irregular bones
Have complicated shapes that fit none of the preceding classes. Examples include the vertebrae...
Functions of BonesSupport
Bones provide a framework that supports the body and cradles its soft organs. For example,...
Functions of BonesProtection
The fused bones of the skull protect the brain. The vertebrae surround the spinal cord, and...
Functions of BonesMovement
Skeletal muscles, which attach to bones by tendons, use bones as levers to move the body and...
Functions of BonesMineral and growth factor storage
Bone is a reservoir for minerals, most importantly calcium and phosphate. The stored minerals...
Functions of BonesBlood cell formation
Most blood cell formation, or hematopoiesis, occurs in the marror cavities of certain bones.
Functions of BonesTriglyceride (fat) storage
Fat is stored in bone cavities and represents a source of stored energy for the body.
Bone markings
The external surfaces of bones are rarely smooth and featureless. Instead, they display projections,...
Compact bone
Every bone has a dense outer layer that looks smooth and solid to the naked eye. This external...
Spongey bone
Internal to the compact bone is the spongy bone (cancellous bone), a honeycomb of small needle-like...
Structure of a Typical long BoneDiaphysis
A tubular diaphysis, or shaft, forms the long axis of the bone. It is constructed of a relatively...
Structure of a Typical long BoneEpiphyses
The epiphyses are the bone ends. In many cases, they are more expanded than the diaphysis....
Structure of a Typical long BoneMembranes
A third structural feature of long bones is membranes. The external surface of the entire bone...
Bone markingsTuberosity
Large rounded projection; may be roughened
Bone markingsCrest
Narrow ridge of bone usually prominent.
Bone markingsTrochanter
Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process.
Bone markingsLine
Narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest.
Bone markingsTubercle
Small rounded projection or process.
Bone markingsEpicondyle
Raised area on or above a condyle.
Bone markingsSpine
Sharp, slender, often pointed projection.
Bone markingsProcess
Any bony prominence.
Bone markingsHead
bony expansion carried on a narrow neck.
Bone markingsFacet
Smoth, nearly flat articular surface.
Bone markingsCondyle
Rounded articular projection.
Bone markingsRamus
Armlike bar of bone.
Bone markingsGroove
Furrow
Bone markingsFissure
Narrow, slitlike opening.
Bone markingsForamen
Round or oval opening through a bone.
Bone markingsNotch
Indentation at the edge of a structure.
Bone markingsMeatus
Canal-like passageway.
sinus
Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane.
Bone markingsFossa
shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface.
Nutrient foramina
The periosteum is richly supplied with nerve fibers, lymphatic vessels, and blood vessels,...
Perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
the periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by perforating (Sharpey's) fibers, tufts of...
Endosteum
Internal bone surfaces are covered with a delicate connective tissue membrane called the endosteum....
Diploe
in flat bones, the spongy bone is called the diploe and the whole arrangement resembles a stiffened...
Red marrow
hematopoietic tissue, red marrow, is typically found within the trabecular cavities of spongy...
Osteoblasts
Essentially, four major cell types populate bone tissue: osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes,...
Osteon
The structural unit of compact bone is called either the osteon or the Haversian system. Each...
lamella
An osteon is a group of hollow tubes of bone matrix, one placed outside the next like the growth...
Central canal
Running through the core of each osteon is the central canal, or Haversian canal, containing...
Perforating canals
Canals of a second type called perforating canals, or Volkmann's canals, lie at right angles...
Osteocytes
Spider-shaped osteocytes occupy lacunae at the junctions of the lamellae.One function of osteocytes...
Cannaliculi
Hairlike canals called canaliculi connect the lacunae to each other and to the central canal....
Interstitial lamellae
Not all lamellae in compact bone are part of osteons. Lying between intact osteons are incomplete...
Circumferential lamellae
Located just deep to the periosteum and just superficial to the endosteum, extend around the...
Osteoid
Bone has bone organic and inorganic components. Its organic components include the cells...
Sacrificial bonds
Bone's exceptional toughess and tensile strength has been the subject of intense research....
hydroxyapatites
The balance of bone tissue consists of inorganic hydroxyapatites, or mineral salts,...
Ossification and Osteogenesis
Are synonyms meaning the process of bone formation. in embryos this process leads to the formation...
membrane bone
when a bone developes from a fibrous membrane, the process is intramembranous ossification,...
endochondral bone
bone development by replacing hyaline carilage is called endochondral ossification, and...
Intramembranous ossification
Results in the formation of cranial bones of the skull (frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal...
Endochondral ossification (definition)
Except for the clavicles, essentially all bones of the skeleton below the base of the skull...
primary ossification center
The formation of a long bone typically begins in the center of the hyaline cartilage shaft...
Endochondral Ossification (Process)
1. A bone collar is laid down around the diaphysis of the hyaline cartilage model. Osteoblasts...
secondary ossification centers
Shortly before or after birth, secondary ossification centers appear in one of both epiphyses,...
resting or quiescent zone
Logitudinal bone growth mimics many of the events of endochondral ossification. The cartilage...
proliferation or growth zone
But the epiphyseal plate cartilage abuting the diaphysis organizes into a pattern that allows...
hypertrophic zone
Meanwhile, the older chondrozytes in the stack, which are closer to the diaphysis (hypertrophic...
Calcification zone
subsequently, the surrounding cartilage matrix calcifies and these chondrocytes die and deteriorate,...
ossification or osteogenic zone
This leaves long slender spicules of calcified cartilage at the epiphysis-diaphysis junction,...
bone remodeling
In the adult skeleton, bone deposit and bone resorption (removal) occur both at the surface...
Bone deposit
Occurs wherever bone is injured or added bone strength is required. for optimal bone deposit,...
Bone resorption
is accomplised by osteoclasts, giant multinucleate cells that arise from the same hematopoietic...
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
The hormonal controls primarily involve parathyroid hormone (PTH), produced by the parathyroid...
Calcitonin
To a much lesser extent calcitonin, produced by parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid...
Response to mechanical stress
The second set of controls regulating bone remodeling, bone's response to mechanical stress...
Wolff's Law (observations)
1. Handedness (being right or left handed) results in the bones of one upper limb being thicker...
Bone Repairfractures
Despite their remarkable strength, bones are susceptible to fractures, or breaks. During youth,...
How are fractures treated?
A fracture is treated by reduction, the realignment of the broken bone ends. In closed...
Repair in a simple fracture involves four major stages:
1. A hematoma forms. When a bone breaks, blood vessels in the bone and periosteum, and perhaps...
Osteomalacia
Includes a number of disorders in which the bones are inadequately minderalized. Osteoid is...
Rickets
Is the analogous disease in children. Because young bones are still growing rapidly, rickets...
Common Types of FracturesComminuted
Bone fragments into three or more pieces. Particularly common in the aged, whose bones are...
Common Types of FracturesCompression
Bone is crushed. Common in porous bones (i.e. osteoporotic bones) subjected to extreme trauma,...
Common Types of FractureSpiral
Ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone. Common sports fracture.
Common Types of FracturesEpiphyseal
Epiphysis seperates from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal plate. Tends to occur where cartilage...
Common Types of FracturesDepressed
Broken bone portion is pressed inward. Typical of skull fracture.
Common Types of FracturesGreenstick
Bone breaks incompletely, much in the way a green twig breaks. Only one side of the shaft breaks;...
Osteoporosis
Refers to a group of diseases in which bone resorption outpaces bone deposit. The bones become...
Paget's disease
Often discovered by accident when X rays are taken for some other reason, Paget's disease is...


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