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What is life?
The ability to manipulate energy
What are the two sources of energy?
1. Photosynthesis 2. Chemosynthesis
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
co2+h20 ----> c6h1206+02
What is chemosynthesis?
co2+o2+h2s ---> c6h1206+s+h20
Where is chemosynthesis found?
Found in the deep ocean, sea floor vents
What is primary productivity?
Converting energy into usable energy
What are phytoplankton?
Drifting photosynthesizing organisms
What are extremophiles?
Single cell organisms that live in the extreme environments such as vents, salt ponds, etc.
What family are extremophiles in?
What are trophic levels?
groups that are defined by their mode of feeding
What are the two trophic levels?
1. Autotrophs- Primary producer, self feeder 2. Heterotrophs- Consumer
What is the correlation between number of organisms to the trophic level?
There are more primary producers than anything else and there are a limited number of top level...
What 4 elements make up life?
1. Nitrogen 2. Oxygen 3. Hydrogen 4. Carbon
What are biochemical cycles?
The interaction of living and non-living trophic levels
What are limiting factors?
A physical or biological necessity that limits action of organisms
What are some good examples of limiting factors?
1. Temperature 2. Light 3. Nutrients
What is the limiting factor in the aphotic zone?
What are ectothermic organisms?
Organisms that are cold blooded. Have an external heat source
What are endothermic organisms?
Warm blooded organisms. Have an internal heat source
What are the factors affecting functions of organisms?
1. Light 2. Temperature 3. Nutrients 4 . Salinity 5. Dissolved Gasses
The solubility of gasses in water _____ as temperature _____
What is diffusion?
The spread of something due to the random vibration of molecules that causes an equal diffusion...
What is osmosis?
The diffusion of water through a membrane into a solution where the solvent concentration is higher, thus equalizing theconcentrations of materials on either side of themembrane.
What is active transport?
The active movement through a membrane. The reverse of passive diffusion. Requires energy
What is evolution?
Change over time
What is natural selection?
The organisms most well adapted to the environment will survive. Environment chooses individuals...
Who proposed the theory of natural selection?
What is taxonomy?
How we organize living (and dead) organisms
What are the two types of cells?
1. Prokaryote 2. Eukaryote
What are prokaryote and eukaryote cell types like?
Pro- simple, small cells, no nucleus Euk - bigger, complex with nucleus
What are the three domains?
1. Bacteric 2. Archaea 3. Eukarya
What are the 6 kingdoms?
1. Eubacteria 2. Archaebacteria 3. Fungi 4. Animilia 5. Plantae 6. Protista
What is the Linnean System?
Created by Carl Linneaus. The naming system of species
What is the decending order of organization (use acronym)
1. Kingdom 2. Phylum 3.Class 4.Order 5. Family 6. Genus 7. Species
What is a species?
A group of individuals with genetic material from the same gene pool that can create offspring...
One standardized Latin word for the genus and for the species * Genus capitalized * Secies...
What are the two life habit types in the ocean?
1. Plankton- Not having the ability to actively swim, drifter 2. Nekton- Have the ability to...
What are phytoplankton?
Autotrophs living in the euphotic zone that are important for marine life and are the basics...
What are the types of Phytoplankton?
1. picoplankton 2. diatoms 3. dinoflagellates 4. coccolithophore
What are the two most important types of phytoplankton?
picoplankton and diatoms
How do you measure primary productivity?
Black and clear water bottles in the different levels of the ocean (euphotic, aphotic, photic...
What defines the bottom of the euphotic zone?
Where the respiration and photosynthesis levels are equal
What factors of the nutrients from the coast affect the concentrations of highest productivity?
nutrient run off and upwelling
What are the limiting factors of the tropics and polar regions?
Tropics- nutrients Poles- light
Are zooplantkton heterotrophs or autotrophs?
What are the types of zooplankton?
copepod, krill, and jellies
What is seaweed?
What is kelp?
multi-cellular species, really productive with photosynthesis, extremely fast growing, live...
How are seaweed classified?
Three types of seaweed
1. Chlorophyta- green 2. Phaeophyta- brown 3. Rhodophyta- red
What are mangroves?
Plants with roots in the water but the plant grows above the water surface
What are angiosperms?
Flowering plants that give fruit to be eaten by animals to spread seed
What are animals?
multi-cellular, heterotrophic, eukaryotes
When is the first animal seen?
between 1.2 billion years ago and 365 million years ago
Explain the Precambrian Time Period
dominated by prokaryotes
What is Oxygen Revolution?
When photosynthesis starts giving off oxygen and change the atmosphere. Oxygen was poisonous...
What is evidence of this revolution?
banded iron formations on rocks
What are the phylums of the animalia?
1. Porifera 2. Cnidaria 3. Molluscus 4. Arthropods 5. Chordates
What do porifera do?
pump water through there cells ex. sponges
What are cnidaria?
have pollups and specialized stinging cells ex. jellyfish and coral