Oceanography Final

Chapters 1-11
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the polarity of water molecules is responsible for all of the following, EXCEPT
covalent bonding
the dissolving ability of water is related to
attraction between the water molecule's positive and negative charges on other atoms
if a sound pulse is sent vertically downward into the sea and its reflected echo from the seafloor retruns 6 seconds later, the depth of the water is ______ meters (The average speef of sound in seawater is 1500m/sec.)
extreme variation in the ocean's temperature is prevented by the water's
heat capacity
the _____ wavelengths of light penetrate deepest into the ocean
when sea ice forms, the atmosphere above the ice ____ heat at the rate of about _____ calories per g of ice formed
gains: 80
heat is measure in
if ocean water were incompressible, sea level would stand _____ its present level
greater than
which method best transmits heat through water?
which substance has the greatest density
cold salt water
if the salinity of ocean water is 36%, there are ____ g of salt left from evaporating 2kg of seawater
ions are removed from seawater by
sources of oxygen in the open sea include
the atmosphere and photosyntheses
the pH of seawater is regulated by
carbon dioxide
which of the following chemicals is commerically extracted from seawater?
trace elements in seawater are
necessary for many maries life forms
a device used to separate fresh water from salt water using heat is called a
the concentration of carbon dioxide in surface water is low, whereas the concentration of oxygen is high because of the
photosynthesis process
which of the following ions has the highest concentration in seawater?
which latitudinal area tends to have the highest average surface salinity
about 25 degrees
ozone destruction appears to be related to increasing levels of ______ in the atmosphere
approximately what percentage of incoming solar radiation is absorbed by the suraface of the earth?
air becomes less dense and rises when
-the air warms -the water vapor content increases -atmospheric pressure decreases
the coriolis effect arises primarliy from the
rotation of earth around its axis
dimethyl sulfide is produced by
marine plants
during the indian wet monsoon, the prevailing wind blow _____ in the _____
onshore; summer
a storm tide is due to the
low atmospheric pressure at a storm's center and strong winds creating a surface flow toward the shore
which reservoir stores the largest amount of CO2
the oceans
the doldrums are found
between the northeast trade winds and the southeast trade winds
hurricanes derive their energy from _____ pressure zones in the ______ latitudes
low; tropical
layering in the ocean occurs because
-surface processes form water layers of differeing combinations of salinty and temperature -atmospheric processes control conditions at the surface
a rapid change in temperature with depth is called a
if the density of the water increases with depth, the water column is
a good example of the thermohaline circulation is found
close to Antarctica
in areas of downwelling, there is not likely to be a near-surface
-halocline -pycnocline -thermocline
the water type occupying the greatest volume of the atlantic ocean is
north atlantic deep water
an open OTEC system can produce
-energy -fresh water -cold air for conditioning -nutrient-rich water for fish farming
if two surface water types with the same desnity but different salinities and temperatures mix, the resulting water will be
denser than both parent types
seasor is
a towed CTD system
order the following water bodies from highest to lowest salinity
mediterranean intermediate water, north atlantic deep water, antarctic bottom water
in the northern hemisphere, the water surface of the open ocean moves
45 degrees to the right of the wind
the average movement of all water affected by the wind is ______ degrees to the _____ of the wind motion in the souther hemisphere
90: left
when geostrophic flow is achieved, the ____ force is balanced by the ____ force
coriolis, gravitational
currents are more intense on the _____ side of the north pacific and north atlantic oceans
a zone of surface divergence is an area of ____ and ____ biological productivity
upwelling: high
a current meter measures water
speed and direction
the main reason why the speed of the florida current is high because
the channel through which is flows is narrow
wind-driven surface currents move at a speed that is _____ the average driving wind speed
one one-hundredth
-persist for long periods of time -mix water -lose enery to turbulence -stir up bottom sediments
the large oceanic surface currents gyres centered on about 30N
rotate clockwise
the restoring force of a fully developed wind wave is
the maximum diameter of a water particle orbit of a deep water wave is defined by wave
the orbital motion of a deep water wave extends to a depth equal to
one-half the wavelength
if a surface water wave has a wavelength of 200 m and a 5-second period its speed is
4000 cm/sec
water particle orbits for a shallow water wave are
elliptical and flatten with depth
water protected from direct wave influence behind a breakwater can be placed in motion by wave
-diffraction -refraction -relfection
water transported shoreward in the surf zone is returned seward by
rip currents
the fetch of a moving storm systerm ____ on the side of the storm where the wind is blowing in the ____ direction as the strom is moving
decreases; opposite increases; same
wave height of a wind waves depends on
windspeed and duration and fetch
the speed of a shallow water wave varies with
the depth of the water
the terms ebb and flood pertain to
-outgoing and incoming tides -the direction of the tidal current flow
to navigate swift tidal currents safely, small boats need to wait for
slack water
the length of a tidal day for a mixed semidiurnal tide is about _____ hours
the _____ tide component tends to make high tides appear about one hour later each day
using equillibrium tidal theory, the tide may be considered a wave with a wavelength approciamtely
half the circumferece of Earth
diurnal tides are more prevalent at middle latitudes when the tide-raising bodies are
at high declination
_____ tides occur at the first quarter moon
since the earth turns_____ the tide wave tends to move ______ around earth
eastward; westward
the tidal range toward the center of an ocean basin wtih a rotary standing tide is _____ the range at the edges of the basin
smaller than
friction between the moving tide wave and the turning Earth acts to
slow the rotation rate of Earth and make the tide wave move as a forced wave
Historians believe that seagoing ships of all kinds were probably derived from
The Egyptians
the first world atlas was produced by
the Greek, Ptolemy
the voayges of Christopher Columbus were an effort to
find a westward route to the East Indies
Captain James Cook
-made three voyages to chart the pacific ocean and its islands -used a copy of john harrison's chronometer to produce accurate charts -circumnavigated the glove -was killed on the island of Hawaii
the franklin-folger map of the gulf stream allowed ships to determine their position with respect to the gulf stream by using a
which of the following individuals first studied the formation of atolls
charles darwin
oceanography as a modern science is usually dated from
the challenger expedition
Fridtjof Nansen froze the vessel, Fram, into the ice to explore
the current system of the arctic
keeping accurate time at sea is necessary to make
mesurements of longitude and accurate maps
the drilling ships, Glomar Challenger and JOIDES Resolution have been used
to study Earth's crust beneath the sea
a map made from an equatorial cylindirical projection shows greatest distortion
at high latitudes
an area drawn on a hypsographic curve equates to a
volume of land or water
approcimately what percentage of gas emitted by volcanoes is water vapor?
how long does it take for the Earth to make on rotation on its axis?
24 hours
if a clock set to Greenwich Mean Time or Universal Time is moved to a location where Noon, according to the sun, occurs at 4:30pm clock time, what is the longitude of the clock?
67.5 W
what is the main evidence of extraterrestrial oceans beaneath the icy surface of two of Jupiter's moons, Europa and Callisto?
Induced magnetic fields
which circle of latitude or longitude has the smallest circumference?
which of the following factor(s) enable(s) the ecistence of liquid water on the earth's surface?
-earth's solar orbit -rotation of the earth on its axis -the earth's atmospheric gases
why are meteorites used to establish an age for the earth?
-they are believed to be the same material from which the earth was formed -rocks on earth have been recycled since the earth was formed and are not believed to be as old as the earth itself
what are the two possible sources of water in the oceans
-water vapor in gases from volcanic eruptions -water vapor from atmospheric impacts of icy comets
the ocean's oldest sediments are found
on top of the basalt layer, far from spreading centers
a fixed volcanic hot spot on Earth tends to produce a _____ on a moving plate
series of volcanic peaks
the deep-ocean trenches are usually associated with
-volcanism -island arc systems -earthquakes
seafloor spreading is continuing at a rate of approximatelt
1 to 10cm/year
magnetic stripes on the seafloor are created at
spreading centers
higher seafloor heat flow values are found
near ocean ridge systems
which of the following help us believe that earth's mass is distributed spherically and uniformly around earth's center
earth's spherical shape and lack of rotational wobble
the density of earth materials _______ as the core is approached
plates move horizontally past each other along
transform faults
mid-ocean rises are relatively low and broad when
spreading rate is high
the most common topographic features on earth are probably
abyssal hils
which of the following is not true about passive continental margins
they are commonly at subduction zones
why do small particles descend to the seafloor at rates exceeding expectation
the particles attract each other and the particles are incorporated into the fecal pellets of small animals
the particle size of terrigenous sediments gernally _____ with distance from shore
manganese nodules are
pelagic hydrogenous sediemnt
a fathom is a unit of
inactive volcanic seamounts on top of the oceanic crust will
subside with time
the continental rise is a product of
turbidity currents produce some
submarine canyons
surface coral formations growing around completely submerged seamounts are called

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