Oceanography Final

110 cards
Oceanography Final

Chapters 1-11

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the polarity of water molecules is responsible for all of the following, EXCEPT 
 

covalent bonding 
the dissolving ability of water is related to 
 
attraction between the water molecule's positive and negative charges on other atoms 
if a sound pulse is sent vertically downward into the sea and its reflected echo from the seafloor retruns 6 seconds later, the depth of the water is ______ meters (The average speef of sound in seawater is 1500m/sec.)
 
4500
extreme variation in the ocean's temperature is prevented by the water's 
 
heat capacity 
the _____ wavelengths of light penetrate deepest into the ocean 
 
blue 
when sea ice forms, the atmosphere above the ice ____ heat at the rate of about _____ calories per g of ice formed 
 
gains: 80
heat is measure in
 
calories 
if ocean water were incompressible, sea level would stand _____ its present level 
 
greater than 
which method best transmits heat through water? 
 
convection 
which substance has the greatest density 
 
cold salt water 
if the salinity of ocean water is 36%, there are ____ g of salt left from evaporating 2kg of seawater 
 
72 
ions are removed from seawater by 
 
adsorption 
sources of oxygen in the open sea include 
 
the atmosphere and photosyntheses 
the pH of seawater is regulated by 
 
carbon dioxide 
which of the following chemicals is commerically extracted from seawater? 
 
bromine 
trace elements in seawater are 
 
necessary for many maries life forms 
a device used to separate fresh water from salt water using heat is called a 
 
still 
the concentration of carbon dioxide in surface water is low, whereas the concentration of oxygen is high because of the 
 
photosynthesis process 
which of the following ions has the highest concentration in seawater?
 
Cl- 
which latitudinal area tends to have the highest average surface salinity 
 
about 25 degrees 
ozone destruction appears to be related to increasing levels of ______ in the atmosphere 
 
chlorine 
approximately what percentage of incoming solar radiation is absorbed by the suraface of the earth? 
 
47%
air becomes less dense and rises when 
 
-the air warms 
-the water vapor content increases 
-atmospheric pressure decreases 
the coriolis effect arises primarliy from the 
 
rotation of earth around its axis 
dimethyl sulfide is produced by 
 
marine plants 
during the indian wet monsoon, the prevailing wind blow _____ in the _____
 
onshore; summer 
a storm tide is due to the 
 
low atmospheric pressure at a storm's center and strong winds creating a surface flow toward the shore 
which reservoir stores the largest amount of CO2
 
the oceans 
the doldrums are found 
 
between the northeast trade winds and the southeast trade winds 
hurricanes derive their energy from _____ pressure zones in the ______ latitudes 
 
low; tropical 
layering in the ocean occurs because 
 
-surface processes form water layers of differeing combinations of salinty and temperature 

-atmospheric processes control conditions at the surface 
a rapid change in temperature with depth is called a 
 
thermocline 
if the density of the water increases with depth, the water column is 
 
stable 
a good example of the thermohaline circulation is found 
 
close to Antarctica 
in areas of downwelling, there is not likely to be a near-surface 
 
-halocline 
-pycnocline 
-thermocline 
the water type occupying the greatest volume of the atlantic ocean is 
 
north atlantic deep water 
an open OTEC system can produce 
 
-energy 
-fresh water 
-cold air for conditioning 
-nutrient-rich water for fish farming 
if two surface water types with the same desnity but different salinities and temperatures mix, the resulting water will be 
 
denser than both parent types 
seasor is 
 
a towed CTD system 
order the following water bodies from highest to lowest salinity 
 
mediterranean intermediate water, north atlantic deep water, antarctic bottom water 
in the northern hemisphere, the water surface of the open ocean moves 
 
45 degrees to the right of the wind 
the average movement of all water affected by the wind is ______ degrees to the _____ of the wind motion in the souther hemisphere 
 
90: left 
when geostrophic flow is achieved, the ____ force is balanced by the ____ force 
 
coriolis, gravitational 
currents are more intense on the _____ side of the north pacific and north atlantic oceans 
 
western 
a zone of surface divergence is an area of ____ and ____ biological productivity 
 
upwelling: high 
a current meter measures water 
 
speed and direction 
the main reason why the speed of the florida current is high because 
 
the channel through which is flows is narrow 
wind-driven surface currents move at a speed that is _____ the average driving wind speed 
 
one one-hundredth 
eddies 
 
-persist for long periods of time 
-mix water 
-lose enery to turbulence 
-stir up bottom sediments 
the large oceanic surface currents gyres centered on about 30N
 
rotate clockwise 
the restoring force of a fully developed wind wave is 
 
gravity 
the maximum diameter of a water particle orbit of a deep water wave is defined by wave 
 
height 
the orbital motion of a deep water wave extends to a depth equal to 
 
one-half the wavelength 
if a surface water wave has a wavelength of 200 m and a 5-second period its speed is 
 
4000 cm/sec 
water particle orbits for a shallow water wave are 
 
elliptical and flatten with depth 
water protected from direct wave influence behind a breakwater can be placed in motion by wave 
 
-diffraction 
-refraction 
-relfection 
water transported shoreward in the surf zone is returned seward by 
 
rip currents 
the fetch of a moving storm systerm ____ on the side of the storm where the wind is blowing in the ____ direction as the strom is moving 
 
decreases; opposite 
increases; same 
wave height of a wind waves depends on 
 
windspeed and duration and fetch 
the speed of a shallow water wave varies with 
 
the depth of the water 
the terms ebb and flood pertain to 
 
-outgoing and incoming tides 
-the direction of the tidal current flow 
to navigate swift tidal currents safely, small boats need to wait for 
 
slack water 
the length of a tidal day for a mixed semidiurnal tide is about _____ hours 
 
24.8
the _____ tide component tends to make high tides appear about one hour later each day 
 
lunar 
using equillibrium tidal theory, the tide may be considered a wave with a wavelength approciamtely 
 
half the circumferece of Earth 
diurnal tides are more prevalent at middle latitudes when the tide-raising bodies are 
 
at high declination 
_____ tides occur at the first quarter moon 
 
neap 
since the earth turns_____ the tide wave tends to move ______ around earth 
 
eastward; westward 
the tidal range toward the center of an ocean basin wtih a rotary standing tide is _____ the range at the edges of the basin
 
smaller than 
friction between the moving tide wave and the turning Earth acts to 
 
slow the rotation rate of Earth and make the tide wave move as a forced wave 
Historians believe that seagoing ships of all kinds were probably derived from
 
The Egyptians 
the first world atlas was produced by 
 
the Greek, Ptolemy 
the voayges of Christopher Columbus were an effort to 
 
find a westward route to the East Indies
Captain James Cook 
 
-made three voyages to chart the pacific ocean and its islands 
-used a copy of john harrison's chronometer to produce accurate charts 
-circumnavigated the glove 
-was killed on the island of Hawaii 
the franklin-folger map of the gulf stream allowed ships to determine their position with respect to the gulf stream by using a 
 
thermometer 
which of the following individuals first studied the formation of atolls 
 
charles darwin 
oceanography as a modern science is usually dated from 
 
the challenger expedition 
Fridtjof Nansen froze the vessel, Fram, into the ice to explore 
 
the current system of the arctic 
keeping accurate time at sea is necessary to make 
 
mesurements of longitude and accurate maps 
the drilling ships, Glomar Challenger and JOIDES Resolution have been used 
 
to study Earth's crust beneath the sea 
a map made from an equatorial cylindirical projection shows greatest distortion 
 
at high latitudes 
an area drawn on a hypsographic curve equates to a 
 
volume of land or water 
approcimately what percentage of gas emitted by volcanoes is water vapor?
 
70%
how long does it take for the Earth to make on rotation on its axis?
 
24 hours
if a clock set to Greenwich Mean Time or Universal Time is moved to a location where Noon, according to the sun, occurs at 4:30pm clock time, what is the longitude of the clock?
 
67.5 W
what is the main evidence of extraterrestrial oceans beaneath the icy surface of two of Jupiter's moons, Europa and Callisto?
 
Induced magnetic fields 
which circle of latitude or longitude has the smallest circumference?
 
80S
which of the following factor(s) enable(s) the ecistence of liquid water on the earth's surface?
 
-earth's solar orbit
-rotation of the earth on its axis 
-the earth's atmospheric gases 
why are meteorites used to establish an age for the earth?
 
-they are believed to be the same material from which the earth was formed 
-rocks on earth have been recycled since the earth was formed and are not believed to be as old as the earth itself 
what are the two possible sources of water in the oceans 
 
-water vapor in gases from volcanic eruptions 
-water vapor from atmospheric impacts of icy comets 
the ocean's oldest sediments are found 
 
on top of the basalt layer, far from spreading centers 
a fixed volcanic hot spot on Earth tends to produce a _____ on a moving plate 
 
series of volcanic peaks 
the deep-ocean trenches are usually associated with 
 
-volcanism 
-island arc systems 
-earthquakes 
seafloor spreading is continuing at a rate of approximatelt 
 
1 to 10cm/year 
magnetic stripes on the seafloor are created at 
 
spreading centers 
higher seafloor heat flow values are found 
 
near ocean ridge systems 
which of the following help us believe that earth's mass is distributed spherically and uniformly around earth's center 
 
earth's spherical shape and lack of rotational wobble 
the density of earth materials _______ as the core is approached 
 
increases 
plates move horizontally past each other along 
 
transform faults 
mid-ocean rises are relatively low and broad when 
 
spreading rate is high 
the most common topographic features on earth are probably 
 
abyssal hils 
which of the following is not true about passive continental margins 
 
they are commonly at subduction zones 
why do small particles descend to the seafloor at rates exceeding expectation 
 
the particles attract each other and the particles are incorporated into the fecal pellets of small animals 
the particle size of terrigenous sediments gernally _____ with distance from shore 
 
decreases 
manganese nodules are 
 
pelagic hydrogenous sediemnt 
a fathom is a unit of 
 
depth 
inactive volcanic seamounts on top of the oceanic crust will 
 
subside with time 
the continental rise is a product of 
 
sedimentation 
turbidity currents produce some 
 
submarine canyons 
surface coral formations growing around completely submerged seamounts are called 
 
atolls 
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