Side ASide B
what is an excellent source of most vitamins.
____ is high in distiller grains and cause toxicity problems when distillers are fed at high...
what is the maximum tolerable sulfur level for most ruminant diets?
0.16 - 0.24%
a vitamin __ , calcium or phosporous deficiency can have similar symptoms.
animals exposed to the sun wll have reduced ___ requirements.
wheat products may improve ___ absorption due to their ___ activity and is more beneficial...
a phosphorous deficiency that cause animals to eat almost any hard object is called:
grass tetany is commonly associated with excess potassium in the forage.
pansteatitis in cats results from a ___ deficiency.
vitamin ___ is required for the enlargement of the foramen through which the optic nerve passes.
polioencephalomalcia is associated with a ____ deficiency and excess ___ in ruminants.
the vitamin required for the synthesis of FAD is:
the mineral that combines with hydroxyapatite to form a harder crystal is:
selenium intake can have a major effect on the ____ requirement.
why is anemia a symptom of copper deficiency?
because copper is needed to get iron into a form that can be incorporated into hemoglobin in...
polioencephalomalcia will cause animals to what?
hold their head in an odd position (star gazing)
what animal would be least susceptible to copper toxicity?
a growing pig
if animals consume raw fish products or bracken fern, the amount of thiamine required in the...
Jersey cattle are ___ susceptible to copper toxicity than Holsteins.
thumps is a sign on ___ deficiency.
iodine and selenium are required for the synthesis of:
moldy sweet clover disease is likely to respond to ___ injections.
a magnesium chloride enema will help prevent:
the "animal protein factor" is:
what is the mineral deficiency that causes parakeratosis in pigs?
vitamin D2 is equal to D3 in all species except:
what vitamin helps to prevent oxidation in cell membranes?
vitamin E & C
goiter is a sign of ___ deficiency.
brassica family plants in the diet can ____ the iodine requirement of livestock.
aluminum concentrations in the brain are associated with:
weed killers, insecticides, and green-treated wood could contribute to the ___ intake of livestock.
cadmium is one of the most toxic elements because:
it has a long half-life in the body
lead can be absorbed through:
the respiratory tracts, digestive tract and skin
what is the most common nutrient deficiency in the human population?
vitamin D is similar to what? why?
hormones, because of similar structure and function in the body
the intrinsic factor is required for the absorption of:
calcium, sodium, magnesium, and potassium are all macro-mineral ___.
what is an especially important route of mineral excretion during heat stress?
generally, high-forage diets will be ___ in calcium.
the body uses ___ as a calcium and phosphorous storage house.
magnesium oxide is included in the mineral supplement to prevent:
the calcium deficiency that affects a large number of post-menopausal women in the U.S. is:
a folic acid deficiency in humans cna increase the incidence of:
the FDA regulates how much ____ is added to diets.
the farm animal most susceptible to iron deficiency is:
night blindness is often the first sign of a ___ deficiency.
iodine supplementation is usually provided through:
the selenium toxicity disease in cattle is called:
what are the signs of a vitamin D deficiency?
rickets & osteomalacia
vitamin ____ will reduce the amount of time required for blood to clot.
in humans, a vitamin C deficiency can cause:
vitamin C in water-soluble and is required in the diets of what animals?
humans, primates, and guinea pigs. also poultry if they are under heat stress
retinol is a ____ vitamin.
the mineral that is a key component of vitamin B12 is:
curled toe paralysis is a common sign of ___ in poultry.
another name for vitamin B6 is:
black tongue disease in dogs is cause by a ___ deficiency and has similar symptoms to ____...
the vitamin that is part of the structure of coenzyme A is:
the strongest noncovalent bond in nature is between avidin and:
the only mineral for which animals exhibit "nutritional wisdom" is:
what animals have little or no need for inorganic sulfur in their diet?
the main reason some breeds of dairy cows give milk with a yellow tint is because:
it contains more carotene than breeds that give a more pure white milk
salt is added ot most diets to meet the ___ requirement
certain breeds of ___ have an inherited disorder that reduces B12 absorption. given an example.
dogs, giant schnauzer
vitamin A toxicosis in the ___ is known as deforming cervical spondylosis.
the vitamin sometimes referred to as ascorbic acid is:
an "International Unit" as applied to vitamins is:
the smallest unit that can be measured as biological activity
alpha tocopherol is the common form of vitamin:
beta carotene is converted to vitamin:
1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol is the active form of vitamin:
menadione is one form of vitamin:
____ concentration in sheep diets affects the level of copper required to cause copper toxicity.
more than any other class of nutrients, _____ interact so that the level of one affects the...
_____ vitamins can be given as an injection because large doses are stored in the body.
what two things can cause grass tetany?
excess potassium and magnesium deficiency
what animal is most susceptible to copper toxicity?
what can excess calcium cause?
parakeratosis in pigs because the calcium competes with zinc and causes the pig to be zinc...
what vitamin is stored in the body for the shortest time?
C because it is water-soluble
how long in the half-life of cadmium in the body?
the ____,___,____ and ___ are all required for the active form of vitamin D to have its effect.
skin, liver, kidney, small intestine
usually high concentrations of B vitamins in the ____ would be indicative of excess B vitamins...
urine, because B vitamins are water-soluble
excess fat-soluble vitamins would be found in the:
for monogastric animals, methionine and cystine are a source of _____.
in general, B12 supplements are not added to ____ diets.
what is the most common form of vitamin A?
what is another name for vitamin D?
list the vitamins in order from longest storage in the body to shortest storage in the body.
A, D, E, K, B & C
what fat-soluble vitamin is stored in the body for the shortest time?
vitamin A is necessary for ___ function in males and females.
vitamin A deficiency causes atrophy of the ____ and reduces _____.
adrenal gland, immune response
what is the basic building block to form vitamin D?
vitamin E deficiency symptoms:
mulberry heart disease (pigs), stiff lamb disease, white muscle disease (calf)
Vitamin E is one of the ____ toxic vitamins.
what vitamin K dependent coagulation protein usually causes problems if K deficient?
what is the active form of B6?
what are the three general biochemical functions of vitamin B6?
amino acid metabolism, seritonin, epinepherine and norepinephrine
what are the biochemical functions of folic acid?
carrier of one-carbon methyl groups, purine synthesis, and initation of translation
deficiency of folic acid results in:
reduced biosynthesis of DNA & RNA and reduced cell division
what B vitamin is required in the smallest amount?
what is the largest and most complex water-soluble vitamin?
choline is commonly supplemented in diets for:
rapidly growing animals
deficiency of choline causes ____ in poultry.
what are the general functions of essential minerals?
skeletal structure, maintain osmotic pressure, regulation of acid-base balance
of all the forages, which one is an especially good source of calcium?
what is the most common deficiency problem in farm animals?
for monogastrics, you have to look at ____ phosphorous.
bioavailable, ruminants use phosphorous the best
grass tetany is usually found in what conditions?
spring, cold & wet conditions, lactating cows
providing plenty of ____ will help prevent grass tetany.
functions of sodium:
osmotic balance, transmission of nerve impulses
selenium deficiency symptoms:
white muscle disease, edema, suppressed immune system, impaired reproduction
thyroid gland contains ___% of the iodine in the body.
at least 90 different enzymes require ___ as a cofactor.
what is the main issue with lead toxicity?
the animal will be affected within 48 hours so its harder to treat.
vitamin A concentrations are ___ in most farm animal diets.
change in hair color is a sign of ___ deficiency.
a ____ soluble form of vitamin K is used as a supplement in most animal diets.
the vitamin that may be important for people who live north of a line from Boston to Los Angeles...
the mineral associated with skin health: