Nutrition Exam 3

118 cards

The flashcards cover the vitamins and mineral required for domestic animals. They also cover the various vitamin and mineral deficiencies as well as toxicities.


 
  
Created Nov 10, 2008
by
kiirarodriguez

 

 
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  Side A   Side B
1
what is an excellent source of most vitamins.
 
liver
2
____ is high in distiller grains and cause toxicity problems when distillers are fed at high...
 
sulfur
3
what is the maximum tolerable sulfur level for most ruminant diets?
 
0.16 - 0.24%
4
a vitamin __ , calcium or phosporous deficiency can have similar symptoms.
 
D
5
animals exposed to the sun wll have reduced ___ requirements.
 
vitamin D
6
wheat products may improve ___ absorption due to their ___ activity and is more beneficial...
 
phosphorous, phytase
7
a phosphorous deficiency that cause animals to eat almost any hard object is called:
 
Pica
8
grass tetany is commonly associated with excess potassium in the forage.
 
true
9
pansteatitis in cats results from a ___ deficiency.
 
vitamin E
10
vitamin ___ is required for the enlargement of the foramen through which the optic nerve passes.
 
A
11
polioencephalomalcia is associated with a ____ deficiency and excess ___ in ruminants.
 
thiamine, sulfur
12
the vitamin required for the synthesis of FAD is:
 
riboflavin
13
the mineral that combines with hydroxyapatite to form a harder crystal is:
 
flouride
14
selenium intake can have a major effect on the ____ requirement.
 
vitamin E
15
why is anemia a symptom of copper deficiency?
 
because copper is needed to get iron into a form that can be incorporated into hemoglobin in...
16
polioencephalomalcia will cause animals to what?
 
hold their head in an odd position (star gazing)
17
what animal would be least susceptible to copper toxicity?
 
a growing pig
18
if animals consume raw fish products or bracken fern, the amount of thiamine required in the...
 
increase
19
Jersey cattle are ___ susceptible to copper toxicity than Holsteins.
 
more
20
thumps is a sign on ___ deficiency.
 
iron
21
iodine and selenium are required for the synthesis of:
 
thyroxine
22
moldy sweet clover disease is likely to respond to ___ injections.
 
vitamin K
23
a magnesium chloride enema will help prevent:
 
grass tetany
24
the "animal protein factor" is:
 
vitamin B12
25
what is the mineral deficiency that causes parakeratosis in pigs?
 
zinc
26
vitamin D2 is equal to D3 in all species except:
 
poultry
27
what vitamin helps to prevent oxidation in cell membranes?
 
vitamin E & C
28
goiter is a sign of ___ deficiency.
 
iodine
29
brassica family plants in the diet can ____ the iodine requirement of livestock.
 
increase
30
aluminum concentrations in the brain are associated with:
 
Alzheimers disease
31
weed killers, insecticides, and green-treated wood could contribute to the ___ intake of livestock.
 
arsenic
32
cadmium is one of the most toxic elements because:
 
it has a long half-life in the body
33
lead can be absorbed through:
 
the respiratory tracts, digestive tract and skin
34
what is the most common nutrient deficiency in the human population?
 
iron deficiency
35
vitamin D is similar to what? why?
 
hormones, because of similar structure and function in the body
36
the intrinsic factor is required for the absorption of:
 
vitamin B12
37
calcium, sodium, magnesium, and potassium are all macro-mineral ___.
 
cations
38
what is an especially important route of mineral excretion during heat stress?
 
sweat
39
generally, high-forage diets will be ___ in calcium.
 
high
40
the body uses ___ as a calcium and phosphorous storage house.
 
bone
41
magnesium oxide is included in the mineral supplement to prevent:
 
grass tetany
42
the calcium deficiency that affects a large number of post-menopausal women in the U.S. is:
 
osteoporosis
43
a folic acid deficiency in humans cna increase the incidence of:
 
soina bifida
44
the FDA regulates how much ____ is added to diets.
 
selenium
45
the farm animal most susceptible to iron deficiency is:
 
baby pig
46
night blindness is often the first sign of a ___ deficiency.
 
vitamin A
47
iodine supplementation is usually provided through:
 
iodized salt
48
the selenium toxicity disease in cattle is called:
 
blind staggers
49
what are the signs of a vitamin D deficiency?
 
rickets & osteomalacia
50
vitamin ____ will reduce the amount of time required for blood to clot.
 
K
51
in humans, a vitamin C deficiency can cause:
 
scurvy
52
vitamin C in water-soluble and is required in the diets of what animals?
 
humans, primates, and guinea pigs. also poultry if they are under heat stress
53
retinol is a ____ vitamin.
 
fat-soluble
54
the mineral that is a key component of vitamin B12 is:
 
cobalt
55
curled toe paralysis is a common sign of ___ in poultry.
 
riboflavin
56
another name for vitamin B6 is:
 
pyridoxine
57
black tongue disease in dogs is cause by a ___ deficiency and has similar symptoms to ____...
 
niacin, pellagra
58
the vitamin that is part of the structure of coenzyme A is:
 
pantothenic acid
59
the strongest noncovalent bond in nature is between avidin and:
 
biotin
60
the only mineral for which animals exhibit "nutritional wisdom" is:
 
sodium
61
what animals have little or no need for inorganic sulfur in their diet?
 
non-ruminants
62
the main reason some breeds of dairy cows give milk with a yellow tint is because:
 
it contains more carotene than breeds that give a more pure white milk
63
salt is added ot most diets to meet the ___ requirement
 
sodium
64
certain breeds of ___ have an inherited disorder that reduces B12 absorption. given an example.
 
dogs, giant schnauzer
65
vitamin A toxicosis in the ___ is known as deforming cervical spondylosis.
 
cat
66
the vitamin sometimes referred to as ascorbic acid is:
 
C
67
an "International Unit" as applied to vitamins is:
 
the smallest unit that can be measured as biological activity
68
alpha tocopherol is the common form of vitamin:
 
E
69
beta carotene is converted to vitamin:
 
A
70
1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol is the active form of vitamin:
 
D
71
menadione is one form of vitamin:
 
K
72
____ concentration in sheep diets affects the level of copper required to cause copper toxicity.
 
molybdenum
73
more than any other class of nutrients, _____ interact so that the level of one affects the...
 
minerals
74
_____ vitamins can be given as an injection because large doses are stored in the body.
 
fat-soluble
75
what two things can cause grass tetany?
 
excess potassium and magnesium deficiency
76
what animal is most susceptible to copper toxicity?
 
sheep
77
what can excess calcium cause?
 
parakeratosis in pigs because the calcium competes with zinc and causes the pig to be zinc...
78
what vitamin is stored in the body for the shortest time?
 
C because it is water-soluble
79
how long in the half-life of cadmium in the body?
 
20-30 years
80
the ____,___,____ and ___ are all required for the active form of vitamin D to have its effect.
 
skin, liver, kidney, small intestine
81
usually high concentrations of B vitamins in the ____ would be indicative of excess B vitamins...
 
urine, because B vitamins are water-soluble
82
excess fat-soluble vitamins would be found in the:
 
feces
83
for monogastric animals, methionine and cystine are a source of _____.
 
sulfur
84
in general, B12 supplements are not added to ____ diets.
 
ruminant
85
what is the most common form of vitamin A?
 
retinol
86
what is another name for vitamin D?
 
sunshine vitamin
87
list the vitamins in order from longest storage in the body to shortest storage in the body.
 
A, D, E, K, B & C
88
what fat-soluble vitamin is stored in the body for the shortest time?
 
K
89
vitamin A is necessary for ___ function in males and females.
 
reproductive
90
vitamin A deficiency causes atrophy of the ____ and reduces _____.
 
adrenal gland, immune response
91
what is the basic building block to form vitamin D?
 
cholesterol
92
vitamin E deficiency symptoms:
 
mulberry heart disease (pigs), stiff lamb disease, white muscle disease (calf)
93
Vitamin E is one of the ____ toxic vitamins.
 
least
94
what vitamin K dependent coagulation protein usually causes problems if K deficient?
 
factor II
95
what is the active form of B6?
 
pyridoxal phosphate
96
what are the three general biochemical functions of vitamin B6?
 
amino acid metabolism, seritonin, epinepherine and norepinephrine
97
what are the biochemical functions of folic acid?
 
carrier of one-carbon methyl groups, purine synthesis, and initation of translation
98
deficiency of folic acid results in:
 
reduced biosynthesis of DNA & RNA and reduced cell division
99
what B vitamin is required in the smallest amount?
 
B12
100
what is the largest and most complex water-soluble vitamin?
 
B12
101
choline is commonly supplemented in diets for:
 
rapidly growing animals
102
deficiency of choline causes ____ in poultry.
 
slipped tendon
103
what are the general functions of essential minerals?
 
skeletal structure, maintain osmotic pressure, regulation of acid-base balance
104
of all the forages, which one is an especially good source of calcium?
 
alfalfa
105
what is the most common deficiency problem in farm animals?
 
calcium deficiency
106
for monogastrics, you have to look at ____ phosphorous.
 
bioavailable, ruminants use phosphorous the best
107
grass tetany is usually found in what conditions?
 
spring, cold & wet conditions, lactating cows
108
providing plenty of ____ will help prevent grass tetany.
 
salt
109
functions of sodium:
 
osmotic balance, transmission of nerve impulses
110
selenium deficiency symptoms:
 
white muscle disease, edema, suppressed immune system, impaired reproduction
111
thyroid gland contains ___% of the iodine in the body.
 
50
112
at least 90 different enzymes require ___ as a cofactor.
 
zinc
113
what is the main issue with lead toxicity?
 
the animal will be affected within 48 hours so its harder to treat.
114
vitamin A concentrations are ___ in most farm animal diets.
 
unstable
115
change in hair color is a sign of ___ deficiency.
 
copper
116
a ____ soluble form of vitamin K is used as a supplement in most animal diets.
 
water
117
the vitamin that may be important for people who live north of a line from Boston to Los Angeles...
 
D
118
the mineral associated with skin health:
 
zinc


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