Nutrition Chapter 6: Proteins

Nutrition
Created Feb 20, 2011
by cjbetts
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proteins
large, complex molecules made up of amino acids and found as essential components of living...
amino acids
nitrogen-containing molecules that combine to form proteins
essential amino acids
amino acids not produced by the body that must be obtained from food
non-essential amino acids
amino acids that can be manufactured by the body in sufficient quantities and therefore do...
transamination
the process of transferring the amine group from one amino acid to another to manufacture a...
peptide bonds
unique types of chemical bonds in which the amine group of one amino acid binds to the acid...
gene expression
the process of using a gene to make a protein
transcription
the process through which mRNA copies genetic information from DNA in the nucleus
translation
the process that occurs when the genetic information carried by mRNA is translated into a chain...
denaturation
a change in the shape of a protein caused by heat, acids, bases, heavy metals, alcohol, or...
limiting amino acid
the essential amino acid that is missing or in the smallest supply in the amino acid pool and...
incomplete proteins
proteins that do not contain all the essential amino acids in sufficient amounts to support...
complete proteins
proteins that contain all nine essential amino acids. Proteins from animal sources are complete...
mutual supplementation
the process of combining two or more incomplete protein sources to make a complete protein
complementary proteins
2 or more foods together contain all nine essential amino acids necessary for a complete...
pepsin
an enzyme in the stomach that begins the breakdown of proteins into shorter polypeptide chains...
proteases
a set of enzymes secreted by cells in the pancreas that hydrolyze (break apart) the...
peptidases
a set of enzymes on the surface of intestinal cells that hydrolyze peptide bonds in oligopeptides,...
protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS)
a measurement of protein quality that considers the balance of essential amino acids as well...
Edema
a disorder in which fluids build up in the tissue spaces of the body, causing fluid imbalances...
transport proteins
protein molecules that help to transport substances throughout the body and across cell membranes
pH
stands for percentage of hydrogen. it is a measure of the acidity - or level of hydrogen -...
acidosis
a disorder in which the blood becomes acidic; that is, the level of hydrogen in the blood is...
alkalosis
a disorder in which the blood becomes basic; that is, the level of hydrogen in the blood is...
buffers
proteins that help maintain proper acid-base balance by attaching to, or releasing, hydrogen...
antibodies
defensive proteins of the immune system. their production is prompted by the presence of bacteria,...
deamination
the process by which an amine group is removed from an amino acid. The nitrogen is then transported...
vegetarianism
the practice of restricting the diet to foods of plant origin, including vegetables, fruits,...
carcinogens
cancer-causing agents, such as certain pesticides, industrial chemicals, and pollutants
protein-energy malnutrition
a disorder caused by inadequate consumption of protein energy and other nutrients. It is characterized...
marasmus
a form of protein-energy malnutrition that results from grossly inadequate intakes of protein,...
kwashiorkor
a form of protein-energy malnutrition that is typically seen in developing countries in infants...
sickle cell anemia
a genetic disorder that causes red blood cells to be sickle or crescent shaped. These cells...
cystic fibrosis
a genetic disorder that caused an alternation in chloride transport leading to the production...


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