Nutrition Chapter 4: Carbohydrates

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nutrition


 
  
Created Feb 20, 2011
by
cjbetts

 

 
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1
carbohydrate
 
one of the three classes of macronutrients; a compound made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen...
2
Glucose
 
the most abundant sugar molecule; a monosaccharide generally found in combination...
3
Photosynthesis
 
the process by which plants use sunlight to fuel a chemical reaction that combines carbon dioxide...
4
Simple carbohydrate
 
commonly called simple sugar or just sugar; a monosaccharide or disaccharide, such as glucose
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Monosaccharide
 
the simplest of carbohydrates. consists of one sugar molecule, the most common form of which...
6
Disaccharide
 
a carbohydrate compound consisting of two sugar molecules joined together
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Fructose
 
the sweetest natural sugar; a monosaccharide that occurs in fruits and vegetables. Also called...
8
Galactose
 
a monosaccharide that joinds with glucose to create lactose, one of the three most common disaccharides
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Lactose
 
also called milk sugar, a disaccharide consisting of one glucose molecule and one galactose...
10
Maltose
 
a disaccharide consisting of two molecules of glucose. Does not generally occur independently...
11
Sucrose
 
a disaccharide composed of one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule. Sweeter than lactose...
12
Complex carbohydrate
 

·         a nutrient...

13

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14
Polysaccharide
 
A complex carbohydrate consisting of long chains of glucose
15
Starch 
 
a polysaccharide stored in plants; the storage form of glucose in plants
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Glycogen
 
a polysaccharide stored in animals; the storage form of glucose in animals
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dietary fibre
 
the ingestible carbohydrate parts of plants that form the support structures of leaves, stems,...
18
Functional fibre
 
the ingestible forms of carbohydrate that are extracted from plants or manufactured in a laboratory...
19
Total fibre
 
the sum of dietary fibre and functional fibre
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Soluble fibre
 
natural pactins, mucilages, and gums that absorb water and form gels. In humans, these substances...
21
Insoluble fibre
 
components of plants that attract and cling to water. In humans, these substances speed up...
22
Salivary amylase
 
an enzyme in saliva that breaks starch into smaller particles and eventually into the disaccharide...
23
Pancreatic amylase
 
an enzyme secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine that digests any remaining...
24
Maltase
 
a digestive enzyme that digests maltose into glucose
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Sucrase
 
a digestive enzyme that digests sucrose into glucose and fructose
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Lactase
 
a digestive enzyme that digests lactose into glucose and galactose
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Insulin
 
hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to increased blood levels of...
28
glucagon
 
hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas in response to decreased blood levels of...
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Glycemic index
 
rating of the potential of foods to raise blood glucose levels
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Glycemic Load
 
GI x Grams of Carbs consumed / 100
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Ketosis
 
the process by which the breakdown of fat during fasting results in the production of ketones
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Ketones
 
substances produced during the breakdown of fat when carb intake is insufficient to meet...
33
Ketoacidosis
 
a condition in which excessive ketones are present in the blood, causing the blood...
34
Gluconeogenesis
 
the generation of glucose from the breakdown of proteins into amino acids
35
Added sugars
 
sugars and syrups that are added to food during processing or preparation
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Nutritive sweeteners
 
sweeteners such as sucrose, fructose, honey, and brown sugar, that contribute energy
37
Non-Nutritive sweeteners
 
also called alternative sweeteners; manufactured sweeteners that provide little or no energy
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Acceptable daily intake (ADI)
 
estimate by Health Canada of amount of non-nutritive sweetener that someone can consume everyday...
39
Diabetes mellitus
 
a chronic disease in which the body can no longer regulate glucose levels in the blood
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Type 1 diabetes
 
a disorder in which the body cannot produce enough insulin
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type 2 diabetes
 
a progressive disorder in which body cells become less responsive to insulin
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Prediabetes
 
a condition in which fasting blood glucose levels are above normal but below the level used...
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Metabolic syndrome
 
a syndrome characterized by high blood pressure, abnormal glucose and insulin levels, imbalance...
44
Hypoglycaemia
 
a condition marked by glucose levels that are below normal levels
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Lactose intolerance
 
a disorder in which the body does not produce sufficient lactase enzyme and therefore cannot...
46
T or FpPasta, bread & potatoes are good sources of complex CHOs? pLettuce, onions &...
 
I THINK:
T, F, F

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