Nutrition Chapter 4: Carbohydrates


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one of the three classes of macronutrients; a compound made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen...
the most abundant sugar molecule; a monosaccharide generally found in combination...
the process by which plants use sunlight to fuel a chemical reaction that combines carbon dioxide...
Simple carbohydrate
commonly called simple sugar or just sugar; a monosaccharide or disaccharide, such as glucose
the simplest of carbohydrates. consists of one sugar molecule, the most common form of which...
a carbohydrate compound consisting of two sugar molecules joined together
the sweetest natural sugar; a monosaccharide that occurs in fruits and vegetables. Also called...
a monosaccharide that joinds with glucose to create lactose, one of the three most common disaccharides
also called milk sugar, a disaccharide consisting of one glucose molecule and one galactose...
a disaccharide consisting of two molecules of glucose. Does not generally occur independently...
a disaccharide composed of one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule. Sweeter than lactose...
Complex carbohydrate
ยท         a nutrient compound such as starch, glycogen,...
A complex carbohydrate consisting of long chains of glucose
a polysaccharide stored in plants; the storage form of glucose in plants
a polysaccharide stored in animals; the storage form of glucose in animals
dietary fibre
the ingestible carbohydrate parts of plants that form the support structures of leaves, stems,...
Functional fibre
the ingestible forms of carbohydrate that are extracted from plants or manufactured in a laboratory...
Total fibre
the sum of dietary fibre and functional fibre
Soluble fibre
natural pactins, mucilages, and gums that absorb water and form gels. In humans, these substances...
Insoluble fibre
components of plants that attract and cling to water. In humans, these substances speed up...
Salivary amylase
an enzyme in saliva that breaks starch into smaller particles and eventually into the disaccharide...
Pancreatic amylase
an enzyme secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine that digests any remaining...
a digestive enzyme that digests maltose into glucose
a digestive enzyme that digests sucrose into glucose and fructose
a digestive enzyme that digests lactose into glucose and galactose
hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to increased blood levels of...
hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas in response to decreased blood levels of...
Glycemic index
rating of the potential of foods to raise blood glucose levels
Glycemic Load
GI x Grams of Carbs consumed / 100
the process by which the breakdown of fat during fasting results in the production of ketones
substances produced during the breakdown of fat when carb intake is insufficient to meet...
a condition in which excessive ketones are present in the blood, causing the blood...
the generation of glucose from the breakdown of proteins into amino acids
Added sugars
sugars and syrups that are added to food during processing or preparation
Nutritive sweeteners
sweeteners such as sucrose, fructose, honey, and brown sugar, that contribute energy
Non-Nutritive sweeteners
also called alternative sweeteners; manufactured sweeteners that provide little or no energy
Acceptable daily intake (ADI)
estimate by Health Canada of amount of non-nutritive sweetener that someone can consume everyday...
Diabetes mellitus
a chronic disease in which the body can no longer regulate glucose levels in the blood
Type 1 diabetes
a disorder in which the body cannot produce enough insulin
type 2 diabetes
a progressive disorder in which body cells become less responsive to insulin
a condition in which fasting blood glucose levels are above normal but below the level used...
Metabolic syndrome
a syndrome characterized by high blood pressure, abnormal glucose and insulin levels, imbalance...
a condition marked by glucose levels that are below normal levels
Lactose intolerance
a disorder in which the body does not produce sufficient lactase enzyme and therefore cannot...
T or FpPasta, bread & potatoes are good sources of complex CHOs? pLettuce, onions &...

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