Nutrition Chapter 3: Digestion

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nutrition


 
  
Created Feb 20, 2011
by
cjbetts

 

 
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1
appetite
 
a psychological desire to consume specific food
2
hunger
 
a psychological sensation that prompts us to eat
3
Hypothalamus
 
a region of the forebrain below the thalamus where visceral sensations, such as hunger and...
4
Hormone
 
chemical messenger that is secreted into the bloodstream by one of the many glands of the body...
5
Tissue
 
group of cells that perform particular set of functions; ex. muscle tissue
6
Organ
 
two or more tissues performing specific function; ex. esophagus
7
system
 
a group of organs that work together to perform unique function; ex. Gastrointestinal system
8
Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
 
a long, muscular tube consisting of several organs: the mought, esophagus, stomach, small intestine,...
9
Sphincter
 
a tight ring of muscle separating some of the organs of the GI tract and opening response nerve...
10
Cephalic phase
 
earliest phase of digestion in which the brain thinks about and prepares the digestive organs...
11
Saliva
 
a mixture of water, mucus, enzymes and other chemicals that moisten the mouth and food, binds...
12
salivary glands
 
a group of glands found under and behind the tongue and beneath the jaw that release saliva...
13
Bolus
 
a mouthful of chewed moistened food that has been swallowed
14
Esophagus
 
muscular tube of the GI tract connecting the back of the mouth to the stomach
15
Peristalsis
 
waves of squeezing and pushing contractions that move food in one direction through the length...
16
Stomach
 
a J-shaped organ where food is partially digested, churned, and held until its release in the...
17
Gastric juice
 
acid liquid secreted within the stomach; it contains hydrochloric acid, pepsin, water, and...
18
Denature
 
a term used to describe the action of unfolding proteins. Proteins must be denatured before...
19
Chime
 
semi fluid mass consisting of partially digested food, water, and gastric juices
20
Small intestine
 
the longest portion of the GI tract, where most digestion and absorption takes place
21
Gallbladder
 
a tissue sac beneath the liver that concentrates and stored bile and secretes it into the small...
22
Bile
 
fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; it emulsifies fats in the small...
23
Pancrease
 
an accessory organ located behind the stomach; it secretes digestive enzymes that break down...
24
Lacteal
 
a small lymph vessel located inside of the villi of the small intestine
25
Brush border
 
term that describes the microvilli of the small intestines lining. these microvilli tremendously...
26
Liver
 
the largest accessory organ of the GI tract and one of the most important organs of the body....
27
Large intestine
 
the final organ of the GI tract, consisting of the cecum, colom, rectum, and anal canal, and...
28
Enteric nervous system
 
the nerves of the GI tract
29
Heartburn
 
the painful sensation that occurs over the sternum when hydrochloric acid backs up from the...
30
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
 
a painful type of heartburn that occurs more than twice per week
31
Peptic ulcer
 
an area of the GI tract that has been eroded away by the acidic gastric juices of the stomach....
32
Food allergy
 
an allergic reaction to food caused by an activation of the immune system
33
Food intolerance
 
gastrointestinal discomfort caused by certain foods that is not a result of an immune system...
34
Celiac disease
 
a genetic disorder characterized by a total intolerance for gluten that causes an immune reaction...
35
Inflammatory bowel disease
 
a term that includes two different diseases with unknown causes that trigger inflammation and...
36
Irritable bowel syndrome
 
a disorder that interferes with normal functions of the colon. Symptoms include abdominal cramps,...
37
Diarrhea
 
a condition characterized by the frequent passage of loose, watery stools
38
Constipation
 
a condition characterized by the absence of bowel movements for a time that is significantly...
39
Stimulate food intake
 
neuropeptine Y and galanin
40
Stimulate satiety
 
leptin, cholecystokinin (CKK) and serotonin
41
Food provides us with
 
•Energy for body processes •Heat for body temperature regulation •Building blocks...
42
Food goes through three processes
 
1.Digestion 2.Absorption 3.Eliminationall occur in gastrointestinal tract - the "food...
43
Digestion
 
1. Mechanical: physical breakdown2. Chemical: enzymatic breakdown
44
illeocecal valve
 
name of sphincter undigested food moves through to get to large intestines
45

Microflora

 
•Synthesize small amts of fatty acids, some B vitamins & vitamin K •By product...
46

Feces

 
•Undigested matter, dead cells, secretions from the GI tract, water and bacteria
47
Constipation Myths!
 
1.Poisonous substances are absorbed from stools & cause ‘autointoxication’ disease 2.Extra...

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