Nutrition - Chapter 2 : Carbohydrates

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Chapter 2: Ca rbhoydra


 
  
Created Feb 7, 2010
by
bbraith07

 

 
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1
Do proteins and alcohol offer any advantage to the body as fuel ?
 
No.
2
What does the brain and nervous system depend on almost exclusively as a source for fuel ?
 
Carbohydrates
3
Do fats provide fuel ?
 
Somewhat, but not normally used for brain and nervous system
4
What are dietary carbohydrates?
 
Simple sugars, starch, and fiber
5
What is another word for simple sugars?
 
Carbohydrates
6
What are the two types of simple sugars?
 
Monosaccharides & Dissaccharides
7
What is the chemist view of starch and fiber?
 
Polysaccharides
8
What are the three types of monosaccharides?
 
glucose, fructose, and galactose
9
What is insulin's role with glucose?
 
moves glucose from blood to cells, cells use glucose for fuel
10
what is glucagon's role with glucose ?
 
brings glucose out of storage
11
which carbohydrate do the brain and nervous system rely on exclusively ?
 
glucose
12
what are the two mose common monosaccharides in nature?
 
glucose and fructose
13
Galactose is...
 
primarily occurs as apart of lactose, known as milk sugar, and freed from lactose as single...
14
what are the three types of disaccharides ?
 
sucrose, lactose, and maltose
15
what do enzymes do with disaccharides during digestion ?
 
They split disaccharides into two monosaccharides
16
Sucrose is composed of what two monosaccharides ?
 
glucose and fructose
17
Lactose is composed of what two monosaccharides?
 
galactose and glucose
18
Maltose is composed of what two monosaccharides?
 
glucose and glucose
19
The breakdown of starch produces what disaccharide?
 
maltose
20
Digestion of maltose in plants includes ...
 
the breakdown of stored starch for energy and they begin to sprout
21
what are the three major polysaccharides?
 
starch, glycogen, and fiber
22
polysaccharide chains are composed almost entirely of ...
 
glucose
23
What is the storage form of glucose in plants ?
 
Starch
24
What is the storage form of energy for humans and animals ?
 
Glycogen
25
what is the function of fiber in plants ?
 
provide structure in stems, trunks, roots, leaves, and stems of plants
26
All Starchy foods are ...
 
plants
27
Grains, legumes, and root vegetables(tubers) are types of
 
starch
28
Where is gylcogen stored in humans and animals?
 
in the liver and muscles
29
What food soruces is glycogen found in and not in ?
 
Found in limited amounts in meats, not found in plant sources
30
How much energy does fiber yield for the body?
 
None. Digestive enzymes cannot break its bonds.
31
Fiber is made up of what type of carbohydrate?
 
polysaccharides
32
Insoluble fibers do not dissolve in water and retain their...
 
structure and texture
33
Some bacteria in the GI tract may digest fiber which may...
 
yield some energy with metabolism (1.5-2.5 kcal/g)
34
Which fiber is associated with low risks of chronic diseases?
 
Soluble fiber
35
What do soluble fibers do in the GI tract?
 
They form gels that are easily digested by bacteria in the large intestine
36
What do insoluble fibers do in the GI tract?
 
Ease elimination
37
Which types of carbs should predominate the diet ?
 
fiber-rich carbs
38
There is a worldwide trend in increasing a.fiber consumption b. sugar consumption...?
 
b. sugar consumption
39
____________ should be treated as discretionary kcalories -
 
concentrated sweets and added sugars (dietary guidelines)
40
No more than ___% of kcalories should come from added sugars
 
10 (World Health Organization)
41
Moderate amts of sugar have no health risk, but excessive amounts cause tooth decay and nutrient...
 
FDA
42
Empty k-calorie/ added sugars contain _______ but few_________
 
glucose & energy, but few nutrients
43
Foods with natural sugars, starches, and fiber deliver
 
protein, vitamins, minerals, glucose, and energy
44
Sugar contributes to nutrient deficiencies by...
 
displacing other nutrients
45
Which carbs promote bacterial growth in the mouth ( tooth decay) ?
 
sugars and starches
46
Populations with < ___% kcal of sugars have low reports of dental caries.
 
10 %
47
The 5 factors that contibute to the development of dental caries are
 
1. how long the food stays in the mouth 2. if teeth are brushed following consumption 3. how...
48
What is the relationship between sugar and obesity ?
 
sugar supports obesity, but does not directly cause it
49
What are some factors that may support obesity in relation to sugars
 
increased sugar intake= greater consumption of kcalories, weight gain= decline in physical...
50
What is the relationship between behavior and sugar?
 
No evidence that sugar causes hyperactive or aggressive behavior,  however the lack of...
51
Sugar should be moderated so that there is enough for _______ but not too much that it________________....
 
pleasure, replaces nutrient dense foods
52
Dietary Guidelines suggest foods and beverages with...
 
little added sugars and that the sugar is categorized as discretionary kcalories.
53
USDA suggests ___ tsp of sugar for ea. kcal respectively 1600, 1800, 2000, 2200, 24000
 
3,5,8,9,12
54
Three forms of 1 tsp of white sugar equivalents are....
 
1. 1 tsp of brown sugar, candy, jam or syrup 2. 1 tbsp ketchup 3. 1.5 tbsp carbonated soft...
55
In regards to sugar, the comparison of an orange vs honey is...
 
1. same sugars 2. orange is more nutrient dense
56
Sugar sweetened soft drinks contain few ____ but many.______ 
 
nutrients, but many tbsp of added sugar
57
Sugar alcohols occur naturally in ___
 
Fruits
58
What are side effects of sugar alcohols ?
 
Abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and gas
59
Sugar alcohols yeild less energy than this type of disaccharide
 
sucrose
60
Among the alternative sweeters, which are nutritive and nonnutritive ?
 
nutritive- sugar alcohols , nonnutritive - artificial sweeteners
61
Alternative sweeteners do not promote...
 
tooth decay
62
Sugar Alcohols are manufactured in order to
 
add sweetness and bulk
63
Artificial sweeteners are not _____ and yield ______
 
carbs, and yield no energy
64
Name 5 U.S. approved artificial sweeteners
 
aspartame, tagatose, saccharin, succralose, neotame
65
Which artificial sweetener is not safe for people with PKU ?
 
aspartame
66
Which Artifiical sWeetener is 200 times more sweet than sucrose ?
 
aspartame
67
Which artificial sweetener is an active ingredient in nutrasweet and equal ?
 
aspartame
68
Aspartame health risk showed _____ in documentary and should be maintained in ____ mg/day
 
no long term health risk, 50
69
What is the relationship between artificial sweeteners and weight control?
 
Widely used to control weight,  some studies show they may cause hunger, but proven the...
70
Dietary Guidelines recommend __ cups of fruits and veggies, __ oz of whole grains, on a ____kcal...
 
4.5, 3, 2000
71
Fiber promotes a feeling  of ________ because it __________
 
fullness, absorbs water
72
What is the result of excessive fiber intake and limited fluid intake?
 
obstruction of the GI tract
73
List 3 harmful effects of excessive fiber intake
 
fiber may bind with minerals and excrete causing a loss of minerals, too much fiber may cause...
74
How much carbs are recommended?
 
45-65% of energy intake
75
How much fiber is recommended ?
 
11.5 g/1000 kcal diet, 20-35 g/day
76
List 4 ways of achieving fiber intake
 
1. drink water to ensure its effectiveness 2. substitue some plant sources for meat sources...
77
what are some food sources of carbs
 
grains, veggies, fruits, milk, cheese, yogurt, meat, poultry, fish, legumes, eggs, and nuts
78
List 4 authorized health claims .
 
Reduced risk of cancer and coronary heart disease

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