Nutrition Ch. 4 Carbohydrates

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Created Oct 5, 2012
by
JeffReynolds

 

 
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1
What are Carbohydrates?
 
Coumpunds composed of single or multiple sugars
2
What are Complex Carbohydrates? What is the other name for them?
 
long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber. 
Also called polysacharides
3
What are Simple Carbohydrates?
 
sugars, including both single sugar units and linked pairs of sugar units.
4
Describe the basic molecule of a simple carbohydrate?
 
Simple Carbohydrate = 6 carbon atoms together with oxygen and hydrogen atoms. 
5
What is Photosynthesis?
 
The process by which green plants make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water using the...
6
Define Chlorophyll
 
the green pigment of plants that captures energy from sunlight for use in photosynthesis.
7
What are Sugars?
What does the term Sugar most ofen refer to?
 
Sugars = simple carbohydrates; molecules of either single sugar units or pairs of those...
8
Define Glucose
 
Glucose = single sugar used in both plant and animal tissues for energy; sometimes known as...
9
what are Monosaccharides?
 
Monosaccharides = Single sugar units
10
Disaccharides
 
pairs of single sugars linked together
11
Where do most carbohydrates come from in the diet?
What is the one exception?
 
Carbohydrates are almost exclusively from plants.
One exception is milk
12
What importance is light from the sun to glucose?
 
Light energy drives the photosynthesis reaction by becoming the chemical energy of the bonds...
13
How many sugars are important in nutrition and how are they classified?
 
6 sugars are important in nutrition
1)    3 Monosacccharides
2)  ...
14
What are the Monosaccharides?
 
Glucoes
Fructose
Galactose
15
Define Galactose
Where is it found in food?
 
1 or 2 single sugars that are bound together to make up the sugar of milk. 
Rarely...
16
What are the Disaccharides?
 
Lactose
Maltose
Sucrose
17
Define Lactose
 
Lactose - a type of mlk sugar - glucose is linked to galactose
18
Define Maltose
Where does it come from?
 
Maltose = malt sugar
Maltose appears wherever starch is being broken down (digestive...
19
What is Sucrose?
What forms Sucrose?
 
Table Sugar
Sucrose = Fructose and Glucose bonded together
20
Where does Sucrose primarily come from in the food supply?
 
Beet and Cane Sugar
21
Why does Sucrose taste sweet?
 
It tastes sweet b/c it contains the sweetest of the monosaccharides - fructose.
22
What is the most important monosaccharide in the human body?
 
Glucose
23
How are Monosaccharides and Disaccharides processed by the body (differently)
 
Monosaccharides are absorbed directly into the bloodstream
Disaccharides...
24
What do most monosaccharides and disaccharides become in the body?
 
Glucose
25
What are Polysaccharides?
 
also known as Complex Carbohydrates
Compounds composed of long strands of glucose units...
26
What is starch?
 
A plant polysaccharide composed of glucose
Plants storage form of glucose
27
How is starch digested by the body?
 
After cooking = highly digestible
Raw - resists most digestion
28
What are Granules?
What are they composed of?
In plants what do starch granules...
 
Small grains. 
Starch granules are packages of starch molecules.
Various plant...
29
What is Glycogen?
 
Glycogen - Highly branched polysaccharide that is made and stored by liver and muscle tissues...
30
Is Glycogen a significant food source?
 
No - it is one of the significant food sources and is not counted as one of the comlplex carbohydrates...
31
How is Glucose stored in the human/animal body?
 
Glucose is stored in long chains of starch in human and animal bodies.
32
What is the storage form of glucose in animals and human beings?
 
Glycogen
33
What is fiber?
what is fiber made of (molecularly)
 
Fiber = indigestible parts of plant foods
Fiber = largely non-starch polysaccharides...
34
Name 6 types of Fiber
 
cellulose
hemicelluloses
pectins
gums
mucilages
nonpolysaccharide...
35
What are Soluble Fibers?
 
Soluble Fibers = food components that readily dissolved in water and often impart gummy or...
36
How are soluble fibers processed by the human body?
 
Soluble Fibers are indigestible by human enzymes but easily broken down by bacteria in the...
37
Where are Soluble Fibers found in the food supply?
What are their benefits?
 
Soluble Fibers are found in Oats, barley, legumes, citrus fruits.
They can help lower...
38
What are insoluble fibers?
How are they processed by the body?
 
Insoluble Fibers -
1) the tough, fibrous structures of fruits, vegetables, and grains.
39
Where are Insoluble Fibers found in the food supply?
What are their benifits to us?
 
1) Celery, outer layer of grains, hulls of seeds, skins of corn kernels
2) Aids by easing...
40
When plants combine Co2, the suns energy, and water what do they produce and how to they store...
 
Plants produce glucose then store it as the polysaccharide starch.
41
What happens (energywise) when humans/animals eat plants?
 
1) humans eat plants and retrieve glucose.
2) in the body the liver and muscles may store...
42
What happens when glucose breaks down?
 
It breaks down into the waste products Co2 and Water, which are excreted
43
Why is Glucose important?
 
Glucose from carbohydrate is an important fule for most body functions.
44
What are the preferred sources of glucose in the diet?
 
Starchy whole foods that supply complex carbohydrates, especially fiber rich ones are the preferred...
45
What is the DRI reccomendation for carbohydrates in the form of total daily energy intake?
 
45-65%
46
What are the 5 benefits of Fiber?
 
1. promtion of normal  bood cholesterol concentrations
2. control of blood pressure
47
How are foods rich in viscous fiber a benefit to us?
 
They combine with cholesterol-containing compounds in bile (excretion).
48
What benefit does fiber have in the GI tract?
 
1. simulates the GI tract muscles so they resist bulging out into pouches known as diverticula
49
How much fiber does the ADA reccomend daily? (g)
 
20-35g daily
50
Chelating Agents
 
Chelating Agents = molecues that attract or bind with other molecules and are therefore useful...
51
What is the relationship b/w fibers and chelating agents?
 
Binders in some fibers act as chelating agents. 
They link chemically with important...
52
What are the drawbacks to too much fiber?
 
1)Too much fiber will limit absorption of nutrients by speeding foods through the upper digestive...
53
How do Starch and Disaccharides differ in their breakdown in the body?
 
Starch requires the most extensive breakdown before it can be absorbed.
Disaccharides...
54
Where does digestion of Starch begin?
Describe the process.
 
1. Digestion of Starch begins in the mouth where it is broken down by saliva and split into...
55
What is resistant starch and what is an example of where it's found in the food supply?
 
Resistant Starch - The fraction of Starch that is digested slowly or not at all by human enzymes.
56
Where is resistant starch found in food and what are it's health benefits?
 
1. Resistant Starch = barley, shilled cooked potatoes and pasta, cooked dried beans and lentils,...
57
1.Desribe the splitting of Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose, and small polysaccharides freed from...
 
1. They undergoe one more split to yield free monosaccharides before they are absorbed. 
58
Which of the bodies cells split glucose for energy?
 
All of them
59
How does the liver and muscle cells store circulating glucose?
 
As glycogen
60
What changes fibers most, digestive enzymes or bacterial inhabitants of the colon?
 
Most fibers are not changed by digestive enzymes,
They are digested (fermented) by bacteria...
61
What is Lactase?
 
The intestinal enzyme that splits the disaccharide lactose to monosaccharides during the digestion.
62
What is lactase relationship to an infant?
 
Infants produce abundant lactase so they can digest mothers milk.
63
What happens to glucose once it is broken down?
 
It is lost forever and becomes other substances that yeild  energy to the body .
64
What is the glucose/body fat relationship?
 
Glucose can be converted into body fat but never the other way around to feed the brain adequately. 
65
What happens if the body runs short of glucose?
 
The body must turn to protein to make energy, robbing blood, organs, or muscle proteins. 
66
What is Protein Sparing Action?
 
Action of carbohydrate and fat in providing energy that allows protein to be used for purposes...
67
What are Ketone Bodies?
 
Acidic, fat-related compounds that can arise from the incomplete breakdown of fat when carbohydrate...
68
Ketosis
 
An undesireable high concentration of ketone bodies, such as acetone, in the blood or urine. 
69
What are 5  consequences of inadequate carbohydrate intake?
 
1. accumulation of ketone bodies that disturb the normal acid/base balance. 
2....
70
What is the DRI minimum carbohydrate level for adults? (g) 
 
130g of carbohydrate a day.
71
What is the DRI minimum carbohydrate level for adults? (g) 
 
130g of carbohydrate a day.
72
What symptoms does abnormally high glucose cause?
 
confusion/difficulty breathing
73
What symptoms does abnormally low glucose cause?
 
dizziness, weakness
74
What 2 safeguard mechanisms does the body use to keep glucose balanced?
 
1. Siphons off excess blood glucose into liver and into muscles for storage as glycogen and...
75
What is Insulin and what does it do?
 
A hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to a high blood glucose concentration.
Assists...
76
Describe the action of Insulin after a meal (4 steps)
 
1. Blood glucose rises and pancrease respond
2. Pancreas relase insulin which  signal...
77
Describe the action of Insulin after a meal (4 steps)
 
1. Blood glucose rises and pancrease respond
2. Pancreas relase insulin which  signal...
78
Where is most of the glycogen in the body stored?
 
The muscles store the most glycogen (2/3)
79
What is the brains relationship to glycogen?
 
The brain stores a tiny amount of glycogen for an our or two in case of deprivation.
80
What is the livers relationship to glycogen?
 
The liver stores glycogen and realeases glucose into the bloodstream for the brain and other...
81
What is the livers relationship to glycogen?
 
The liver stores glycogen and realeases glucose into the bloodstream for the brain and other...
82
What happens to the liver if the body runs  out of carbohydrate from food?
 
The liver can be depleted of glycogen stores in less than one waking day. 
83
How does the liver release glucose?
 
When blood glucose starts to fall too low, the hormone glucagon floods the bloodstream and...
84
How is glucose stored in the liver?
 
Glucose is stored in the liver as Glycogen.
85
T or F, Muscles store their own glycogen.
 
True
86
What is the action difference between insulin and glucagon?
 
Insulin promotes glycogen storage.
Glucagon acts to liverate glucose from liver glycogen. 
87
Hypoglycemia
 
A blood glucose concentration that is below normal. 
88
What could hypoglycemia indicate?
 
Several diseases including Diabetes.
89
Sugar Alcohols  
 
Sugarlike compounds in the chemical family alcohol derived from fruits or the sugar dextrose...
90
Dental Caries
 
Decay of the teeth.
91
T or F, Artificial sweeteners are sugar substitues that provide modest energy. 
 
False - artificial sweeteners provide no energy. 
92
T or F, Artificial sweeteners are sugar substitues that provide modest energy. 
 
False - artificial sweeteners provide no energy. 
93
What is postprandial hypoglycemia?
What is another name for it?
 
unusual drop in blood glucose that follows a meal and is accompanied by symptoms such as anxiety,...
94
What does the body do with excess glucose once the liver and muscle stores are full?
What...
 
body tissues shift from burning fat for energy to burning glucose for energy. 
The...
95
Glycemic Index
 
Ranking of foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose relative to a standard...
96
Glycemic Load (GL) 
 
A mathematical expression of both the glycemic index and the carbohydrate content of a food,...
97
How are Carbs stored as Fat? (3 steps)
 
1. Liver breaks down excess glucose into fats
2. fats are released into the blood, carried...
98
How much glycogen can the liver store?
 
About 2000 calories.
99
how much fat can the average size person store in fat cells?
 
Fat cells = 70,000 calories and are almost limitless in size. 
100
When the body is presented with both glucose and fat from a mixed meal, what does it do?
 
The body will store fat and use glucose for immediate energy needs. 
101
Which is higher on the GI scale, Ice Cream or Potatoes?
Why?
 
Potatoes rank higher - they are all glucose
Ice Cream is made of sucrose, and fructose...
102
Why is the GL important to diabetics?
 
The lower the GL the less insulin needed to maintain normal glucose concentraions. 
103
What affects someones glycemic response?
 
body size, weight, blood volume, metabolic rate
104
T or F, the glycemic response to foods is fairly standard in normal healthy adults. 
 
False, the glycemic response varies between individuals. 
105
What are some food factors that have an influence on glycemic index results. 
 
Plant variety 
ripeness
processing 
preparation
other foods...
106
Diabetes
 
A disease characterized by elevated blood glucose and inadequate or ineffective insulin which...
107
What is the technical term for diabetes?
What does it mean?
 
Diabetes Melitus
Melitus is latin for 'sugar in the urine'
108
What is pre-diabetes?
 
condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed...
109
Where does diabetes mellitus rank as a cause of death in the US?
How much does it cost...
 
7th
$132 billion
110
How many adults ages 20 and over  in the US have prediabetes?
How many adults in...
 
Prediabetes = 57 million
Diabetes = 24 million
111
What is Insulin Resistance?
What causes it?
 
1.A condition in which a normal or high level of circulating insulin produces a less than normal...
112
What is type I dibetes?
 
Type I diabetes = type of diabetes in which the pancreas produces no or very little insulin.
113
What is the leading chronic disease amoung juveniles and adolescents?
 
Type 1 Diabetes 
114
What are the percentage rates for Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes?
 
Type 1 = 5-10%
Type 2 = 90-95%
115
What is an Auto Immune Disorder?
What are 2 examples?
 
Auto Immune Disorder = A disease in which the body develops antibodies to it's own proteins...
116
Why is Insulin injected and not taken orally?
 
The digestive system would digest insulin.
117
T or F, Genetic Inheritance is not a factor in Type 1 diabetes.
 
False, Genetic Inheritance IS a factor in Type 1
118
What organ is attacked in Type 1 Diabetes?
 
The Pancreas
119
Define Type 2 Diabetes
What are 2 former names?
 
The type of Diabetes in which the pancrease make plenty of insulin  but the bodies cells...
120
T or F,  a low carbohydrate diet  (less than 130 g) is reccomended for those with...
 
False
121
What plays a centrol role in controlling blood glucose as far as diet is concerned?
 
Controlling Carbohydrate Intake.
122
Added Sugars
 
any sugar extracted from it's original source and added to foods. 
123
how many calories and CHO does a teaspoonful of any sweet supply?
 
About 16 calories and 4 g of CHO
124
T or F, brown colored grains are always multigrains.
 
False, they can be refined with color added to them. 
125
How much CHO do oils and solid fats contain?
 
None
126
What is brown sugar?
 
White sugar with molasses added. 
95% pure sucrose.
127
What is confectioners sugar?
 
99.9% pure sucrose
128
What is dextrose?
 
An older name for sucrose
129
What is high fructose corn syrup?
 
a commercial sweetener used in many foods, indluding soft drinks. 
comosed almost...
130
What is white sugar?
 
Pure sucrose, produce by dissolving, concentrating, and recrystalizing raw sugar. 
131
What 2 sugars primarily make up High Fructose Corn Syrup?
 
Fructose and Glucose
132
What is starch almost entirely composed of?
 
Glucose


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