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Normal Development Of Speech & Language

Exam I
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Side ASide B
Definitions of Speech and Language
Langugage is how you put it together, Speech is more motor sound related.
Language
Is the Set of abstract symbols and rule governed structures
Speech
Oral expression of language
Syntax
Grammar related- ways we put words in a sentence.
Morphology
Internal organization of words
Phonology
How we make words according to sounds
Semantics
Meaning of words
Pragmatics
The use of language (conversational skills)
Content
Semantics
Form
Syntax, morphology, phonology
Use
Pragmatics
Outer Ear
(Collects noise) -Pinna -External Auditory Meatus/Ear Canal
Middle ear
(Air filled) (impedance matching) -Tympanic Membrane/ear drum -Malleus -Stapes -Incus
Inner Ear
(fluid filled) - semicircular canals (controls balance and equilibrium) - Cochlea (hearing   . cilia
Functions of the 4 brain lobes
- Frontal Lobe: Reasoning, Personality is usually housed here. - Parietal Lobe: Touch, visuospatial skills - Temporal Lobe: Sound discrimination, smell and short term memory -Occipital...
Important Areas for Speech and Language
- Wernicke's Area: Located in the Temporal lobe, comprehension - Broca's Area: Located in the Frontal lobe, expressive Language - Primary Motor Cortex - Primary Auditory...
INhilation
- Diaphram flattens -Ribs move outwards -Sternum moves up and outward -lungs expand with air
Exhalation
- Muscles relax in passive breathing - every 12-15 times a minute you take a breath -increased power needed for speech - little inhilation followed by long exhalation during speech -...
ABduction and ADDuction of Vocal Folds
Abduction: open Adduction: Closed
Cycle of Vocal Fold Vibration
- Vocal folds adduct to restrict airflow from lungs -Air pressure builds up beneath vocal folds - Vocal folds are blown apart with air moving up into the pharynx -decreased pressure...
Function of the Velum
Closes when swallowing so food doesnt go out your noise. When velum raises is closes of velar sounds
Places of articulation
- alveolar ridge - teeth - hard palate -soft palate (tongue,lips,jaw)
Concept of nature vs nurture in Language acquisition
Nature (biological basis for language) -genetic lines -twins -similar process among children Nurture (interaction with the environment) If children were not exposed to the...
Behaviorist  (operant condition) (shaping) (chaining)
Skinner came up with operant conditioning (we learn thru rewards and punishment) -operant -reinforcer -punisher Shaping is when a child's 1st words( wawa) are shaped into...
Nativist (LAD) (Transformational Generative Grammar)
Langugage Acquisition Device introduced by chomsky is the mental innate period which enables an infant to acquire and produce language. Transformational generative grammar -Deep...
Generative Semantics
Cases- Noun Phrase 1. Agentive: initiator of the action EX: Sally kicked the ball 2. Dative: Who is receiving the action EX: John hit the ball 3. Experiencer: animate person...
Cognitive Theory
Introduced by piaget In the sensorimotor period (0-2years) where language is the product of cognition
Information processing Theory
Brain is Like a computer. You take in, convert into symbolic code, store in memory and retrieve when needed. 
Pragmatic Theory
language use is the vehicle in which we learn it. We use language for a purpose. There are 3 speech acts; -locutionary acts: what you say -illoctionary act: your meaning -perloctionary...
Social Interactionist theory
biological and environmental factors in lang. acq.  language is a result of social communication Parent child interaction forms the base for conversational interaction. Joint...
Piaget (schemas,assimilation,accomodation,distancing)
Scehmas: categories of knowledge (zoo animals, pet animals) Assimilation: how they bring information and put it into a schema. Accomodation: Making new schemas to accomodate the new...
Sub Stage 1
-0-1 month -relexive actions (crying,sucking) -no differentiation between self and objects reflexes: moro sucking rooting grasp
sub stage 2
1-4 months -look at objects -turn eyes toward sounds -imitation:will copy vocalization (cooing) communication: cries are more differentiated
sub stage 3
4-8 months -Object permanance begins to develp, they reach for objects if it falls away(not if out of sight) -casuality- baby thinks there in control of all things -Means-end- does...
substage 4
-8-12 months object permanence- look for hidden objects and understand spatial dimensions (upside down cup) Casuality- less ego centric and understands that other people cause actions Means...
Substage 5
12-18 months Object permanence is almost complete, sequential displacement (looks for thingds in places theyve looked for before) Casuality- sees other people as agents Means-end:...
Substage 6
18-24 months object permanence is fully developed casuality- able to solve problems Means end: able to identify goals and plan strategies to achieve goals Imitation: deferred imitation Play:...
Private Speech
Represents an early transition in becoming more socially communicative.  Ex: when they are playing they are really working things out.  - ex doll house playing
Zone of Proximal Development(ZPD)
Children's social development with more skilled adults and peers is critical to cognitive development. ( someone skilled teaching us) lower limit of ZPD the child can do independtly...
Scaffolding
Changing the level of support/ guidance


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