Normal Development Of Speech & Language

Exam I
Created Feb 23, 2014
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Side ASide B
Definitions of Speech and Language
Langugage is how you put it together, Speech is more motor sound related.
Is the Set of abstract symbols and rule governed structures
Oral expression of language
Grammar related- ways we put words in a sentence.
Internal organization of words
How we make words according to sounds
Meaning of words
The use of language (conversational skills)
Syntax, morphology, phonology
Outer Ear
(Collects noise) -Pinna -External Auditory Meatus/Ear Canal
Middle ear
(Air filled) (impedance matching) -Tympanic Membrane/ear drum -Malleus -Stapes -Incus
Inner Ear
(fluid filled) - semicircular canals (controls balance and equilibrium) - Cochlea (hearing  ...
Functions of the 4 brain lobes
- Frontal Lobe: Reasoning, Personality is usually housed here. - Parietal Lobe: Touch, visuospatial...
Important Areas for Speech and Language
- Wernicke's Area: Located in the Temporal lobe, comprehension - Broca's Area: Located...
- Diaphram flattens -Ribs move outwards -Sternum moves up and outward -lungs expand with...
- Muscles relax in passive breathing - every 12-15 times a minute you take a breath -increased...
ABduction and ADDuction of Vocal Folds
Abduction: open Adduction: Closed
Cycle of Vocal Fold Vibration
- Vocal folds adduct to restrict airflow from lungs -Air pressure builds up beneath vocal...
Function of the Velum
Closes when swallowing so food doesnt go out your noise. When velum raises is closes of...
Places of articulation
- alveolar ridge - teeth - hard palate -soft palate (tongue,lips,jaw)
Concept of nature vs nurture in Language acquisition
Nature (biological basis for language) -genetic lines -twins -similar process among children Nurture (interaction...
Behaviorist  (operant condition) (shaping) (chaining)
Skinner came up with operant conditioning (we learn thru rewards and punishment) -operant -reinforcer -punisher Shaping...
Nativist (LAD) (Transformational Generative Grammar)
Langugage Acquisition Device introduced by chomsky is the mental innate period which enables...
Generative Semantics
Cases- Noun Phrase 1. Agentive: initiator of the action EX: Sally kicked the ball 2....
Cognitive Theory
Introduced by piaget In the sensorimotor period (0-2years) where language is the product of...
Information processing Theory
Brain is Like a computer. You take in, convert into symbolic code, store in memory and retrieve...
Pragmatic Theory
language use is the vehicle in which we learn it. We use language for a purpose. There are...
Social Interactionist theory
biological and environmental factors in lang. acq.  language is a result of social communication Parent...
Piaget (schemas,assimilation,accomodation,distancing)
Scehmas: categories of knowledge (zoo animals, pet animals) Assimilation: how they bring information...
Sub Stage 1
-0-1 month -relexive actions (crying,sucking) -no differentiation between self and objects reflexes: moro sucking rooting grasp
sub stage 2
1-4 months -look at objects -turn eyes toward sounds -imitation:will copy vocalization (cooing) communication:...
sub stage 3
4-8 months -Object permanance begins to develp, they reach for objects if it falls away(not...
substage 4
-8-12 months object permanence- look for hidden objects and understand spatial dimensions...
Substage 5
12-18 months Object permanence is almost complete, sequential displacement (looks for thingds...
Substage 6
18-24 months object permanence is fully developed casuality- able to solve problems Means...
Private Speech
Represents an early transition in becoming more socially communicative.  Ex: when they...
Zone of Proximal Development(ZPD)
Children's social development with more skilled adults and peers is critical to cognitive...
Changing the level of support/ guidance

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