Nonspecific Resistance against disease

62 cards

external barriers, phagocytosis, antimicrobial proteins, inflammation, fever


 
  
Created Oct 14, 2010
by
kimleszczynski

 

 
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1
external barriers (non specific resistance)
 
defends against invasion of pathogens
2
pathogens
 
disease-producing agents that include infectious organisms, toxic chemicals and radiation
3
human environment for pathogens
 
human body harbors billions of bacteria because homeostasis provides ideal temperature, moisture...
4
___________ and ____________ are first line of defense against pathogens
 
skin and mucous membranes
5
skin=
 
too dry and nutrient weak for microbes to survive
6
epidermal cells and keratin
 
provide mechanical mechanical barriers against microbes
7
antimicrobial chemicals and lactic acid
 
come from sweat and form coating over skin
8
sebaceous glands
 
secrete sebum to form protective film over skin
9
mucous membranes
 
line body cavities that are exposed to the exterior, secretes mucous that traps microbes
10
areolar connective tissue
 
contains hyaluronic acid which gives it thick, sticky consistency which make it hard for microbes...
11
lacrimal apparatus
 
secrete tears to prevent microbes from infecting eyeballs
12
saliva
 
dilutes the number of microorganisms and washes them from mouth and teeth
13
sweat glands
 
produce perspiration to flush microorganisms from the skin
14
mucous, tears, saliva, and perspiration contain:
 
lysozomes
15
lysozomes
 
dissolve bacterial walls
16
urine
 
prevents bacterial growth in urinary system by constantly flushing the urethra
17
acidic secretions
 
from gastric glands in stomach and in the vagina
-stop bacteria growth in intestinal tract...
18
organisms that get past the skin and mucous membranes are attacked by _________________
 
phagocytes
19
neutrophils
 
usually phagocytize bacteria but can also kill bacteria with chemicals
20
killing zone
 
neutrophils release enzyme to form a killing zone around itself
21
neutrophils contain
 
hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorite
22
natural killer (NK) cells
 
are large lympocytes made in red bone marrow which can kill a variety of bacteria

-they...
23
natural killers release
 
perforins
24
perforins
 
rupture the membranes and destroy target cells
25
macrophages
 
develop from monocytes and become scavenger cells
26
wandering macrophages
 
leave the blood and seek out pathogens
27
fixed macrophages
 
stand guard in tissues and/or organs and phagocytize bacteria that come to them
28
antimicrobial proteins
 
provide second line of defense when pathogen penetrates skin and mucous membranes
29
interferons
 
proteins that are produced and released by cells that are cancerous or infected with viruses

-stimulate...
30
complement system
 
a group of 30 or more proteins made by the liver and circulate in blood plasma in inactive...
31
activation by a pathogen....
 
splits complement proteins into fragments that can destroy pathogen by inflammation, immune...
32
classical pathway
 
requires activation of antibodies
-makes it a part of the immune response
33
alternative pathway
 
non-specific
-active complement fragments bind to viruses and bacteria
34
lectin pathway
 
binds plasma proteins to particular carbohydrates to initiate reaction cascade
35
inflammation
 
local response to tissue damaged-designed to limit spread of pathogen, to remove debris associated...
36
characteristics of inflammation
 
redness, swelling, heat and pain
37
words ending in "itis" indicate:
 
inflammation
38
occurence of inflammation
 
can occur anywhere in the body but is most common in the skin
39
mediation of inflammation
 
mediated by cytokine proteins that alter physiology or behavior of the recipient cell
40
local vasodilation
 
increases blood flow to the damaged tissue causing hyperemia
41
hyperemia
 
redness and heat in inflamed region
42
mast cells release
 
histamines, kinins, prostaglandins, and leukotrines
43
histamines, kinins, prostaglandins and leukotines:
 
increase permeability of blood vessels and promote filtration of fluid from blood into interstitial...
44
soon after inflammation occurs...
 
damaged tissue is flooded with leukocytes

-leads to increased WBC count (inflammation)
45
when tissue is filled with leukocytes
 
neutrophils cling to the inner walls of the capillaries to signal location of inflammation
46
diapedesis
 
allows leukocytes to change shape and crawl through capillary walls to interstitial fluid
47
pathogens are contained and destroyed before...
 
they can spread throughout the entire body
48
fibrinogen
 
forms clot around the damaged tissue and keeps pathogens out
49
heparin
 
prevents blood from clotting in vicinity of injury
50
chemotaxis
 
site of injury or infection
51
neutrophil are attracted by___________ and begin to ___________________
 
chemicals that guide them to the chemotaxis; and being to phagocytize and destroy bacteria
52
neutrophils attract __________ and more ______________ by secreting ______________
 
monocytes; and more neutrophil; by secreting cytokines
53
monocytes
 
arrive 8-12 hours after injury and become wandering macrophages and engulf remaining bacteria,...
54
monocytes act as
 
antigen presenting cells
-activate the immune response
55
pus
 
dead and dying phagocytes, cellular debris, and living and dead pathogens get surrounded by...
56
blister
 
pus is usually drained from infection site but if it cannot drain from inflammation site blister...
57
fever
 
an abnormal elevation of body temperature resulting from trauma or infection
58
fever promotes
 
interferon activity, metabolic rate, inhibits reproduction of bacteria or viruses, and accelerates...
59
neutrophils and macrophages
 
secrete fever producing agents to raise hypothalamic set point for body temperature
60
neutrophils and macrophages :::
 
-causes shivering to generate heat and vasoconstriction to reduce heat loss

-temperature...
61
reye syndrome
 
in children under 15, some viral infections are followed by Reye syndrome
62
triggers of reye syndrome
 
aspirin--children shouldn't take aspirin when they have the chicken pox or flu like symptoms


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