Network+ - Protocols

Protocols And Sub-protocols
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A standard method or format for communication between network devices. Ensures that data are transferred whole, in sequence, and without error from one node on the network to another.
An Application layer protocol that formulates and interprets requests between Web clients and servers
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that operates in the Network layer of the OSI model and provides information about how and where data should be delivered. It is the subprotocol that enables TCP/IP to internetwork
IP (Internet Protocol)
A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that belongs to the Network layer of the OSI model. It obtains the MAC (physical) address of a host, or node, and then creates a local database that maps the MAC address to the host's IP (logical) address.
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
An Application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite that uses a central list of IP addresses, and their associated devices' MAC addresses to assign IP addresses to clients dynamically. It was the precursor to DHCP.
BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol)
An Application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite that manages the dynamic distribution of IP adresses on a network. Using this protocol to assign IP addresses can nearly eliminate duplicate-addressing problems
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
An Application layer protocol used to send and receive files via TCP/IP
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that notifies the sender that something has gone wrong in the transmission process and that packets were not delivered
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)
A TCP/IP protocol used to manage multicast transmissions. Routers use this protocol to determine which nodes belong to a multicast group, and nodes use this protocol to join or leave a multicast group
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol or Internet Group Multicast Protocol)
An Application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite that facilitatesthe exchange of newsgroup messages, or articles, between multiple servers and users
NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol or Network News Transport Protocol)
A simple Application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite used to synchronize the clocks of computers on a network. This protocol depends on UDP for Transport layer services
NTP (Network Time Protocol)
A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that belongs in the Network layer of the OSI model. This protocol relies on a database table to associate the IP (logical) address of a node with its MAC (physical) address. It can be used to supply IP addresses to diskless workstations.
RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol)
A core protocol of the TCP/IP suite. It belongs to the Transport layer and provides reliable data delivery services
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
A suite of networking protocols that includes TCP, IP, UDP and many others. It provides the foundation for data exchange across the Internet.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
A terminal emulation protocol used to log on to remote hosts using the TCP/IP protocol. This protocol resides in the Application layer of the OSI model.
A TCP/IP Application layer protocol that enables file transfers between computers. Unlike FTP, this protocol relies on UDP at the transport layer and does not require a user to log on to the remote host.
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)
A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that sits in the Transport layer of the OSI model. It is a connectionless transport service.
UDP (User Datagram protocol)
A collection of protocols designed by the IETF to simplify the setup of nodes on a TCP/IP network. This protocol assigns a node an IP address, resolves the node's host name and IP address without requiring a DNS server, and discovers services, such as print services, available to the node, also without requiring a DNS server.
Zeroconf (Zero Configuration)
A routing protocol developed in the mid-1980s by Cisco Systems that has a fast convergence time and a low network overhead, but is easier to configure and less CPU-intensive than OSPF. This protocol also offers the benefits of supporting multiple protocols and limiting unnecessary network traffic between routers.
EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
A link-state routing protocol that uses a best-path algorithm similar to OSPF's. This protocol was originally codified by ISO, which referred to routhers as "intermediate systems", thus the protocol's name. Unlike OSPF, it is designed for use on interior routers only.
IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System)
A type of routing protocol that enables routers across a network to share information, after which each router can independently map the network and determine the best path between itself and a packet's destination node
A routing protocl that makes up for some of the limitations of RIP and can coexist with RIP on a network.
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
The oldest routing protocol that is still widely used, it does not work in very large network environments in which data may have to travel through more than 15 routers to reach their destination (for example, on the Internet). And, compared to other routing protocols, it is slower and less secure.
RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
An updated version of the original RIP routing protocolw hich makes up for some of its predecessor's overhead and security flaws. However, its packet forwarding is still limted to a maximum of 15 hops.
RIPv2 (Routing Information Protocol version 2)
As described in IEEE's 802.1w standard, a newer version of the Spanning Tree Protocol that can detect and correct for network changes much more quickly.
RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol)
A switching protocol defined in IEEE 802.1D. It operates in the Data Link layer to prevent traffic loops by calculating paths that avoid potential loops and by artificially blocking links that would complete a loop. Given changes to a network's links or devices, this protocol recalculates its path.
STP (Spanning Tree Protocol)
A protocol that encapsulates PPP data, for use on VPNs. It is based on Cisco technology and is standardized by the IETF. It is distinguished by its compatibility among different manufacturers' equipment; its ability to connect between clients, routers,and servers alike; and also by the fact that it can connect nodes belonging to different Layer 3 networks.
L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol)
A communications protocol that enables a workstation to connect to a server using a serial connection. PPP can support multiple Network layer protocols and can use both asynchronous and synchronous communications. It performs compression and error correction and requires little configuration on the client workstation.
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
PPP running over an Ethernet network.
PPPoE (Point-to-Point protocol over Ethernet)
A Layer 2 protocol developed by Microsoft that encapsulates PPP data for transmission over VPN connections. This protocol operates with Windows RRAS access services and can accept connections from multiple different clients. It is simple, but less secure than other modern tunneling protocols.
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
An Application layer protocol that uses TCP/IP to transmit graphics and text quickly over a remote client-host connection. it also carries session, licensing, and encryption information.
RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol)
A communications protocol that enables a workstation to connect to a server using a serial connection. It can support only asynchronous communications and IP traffic and requires some configuration on the client workstation. It has been made obsolete by PPP.
SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)
A file access protocol. It runs over TCP/IP and is the standard file access protocol used by Windows operating systems.
CIFS (Common Internet File System)
A protocol that enables one system to access files on another system
file access protocol
A standard protocol for accessing network directories
LDAP (Lightweight directory Access Protocol)
A protocol for communications and resource access between systems, such as clients and servers. It originated at IBM and then was adopted and further developed by Microsoft for use on its Windows operating systems. The current version of this protocol is known as the CIFS (Common Internet File System) protocol.
SMB (Server Message Block)
A mail retrieval protocol that improves on the shortcomings of POP. The single biggest advantage relative to POP is that it allows users to store messages on the mail server, rather than always having to download them to the local machine. The most current version of this protocol is version 4.
IMAP(Internet Message Access Protocol)
An Application layer protocol used to retrieve messages from a mail server. When a client retrieves mail via POP, messages previously stored on the mail server are downloaded to the client's workstation, and then deleted from the mail server.
POP (Post Office Protocol). The most commonly used IS POP3 (version 3)
The Application layer TCP/IP subprotocol responsible for moving messages from one e-mail server to another.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
A Session layer call signaling protocol defined as part of ITU's H.323 multiservice network architecture. This protocol is responsible for call or videoconference setup between nodes on a VoIP or video-over-IP network, indicating node status, requesting additional bandwidth and call termination
A Session layer control protocol defined as part of ITU's H.323 multiservice network architecture. This protocol is responsible for controlling a session between two nodes. It ensures that the two nodes are communicating in the same format.
A protocol used for communication between media gateway controllers and media gateways. This protocol is defined in RFC 2507, but it was never officially adopted as a standard. It is currently the most popular media gateway control protocol used on converged networks.
MGCP (Media Gateway Control Protocol)
A protocol used between media gateway controllers and media gateways. It is poised to replace MGCP on modern converged networks, as it supports a broader range of network technologies, including ATM. Also known as H.248.
As specified in RFC 2205, a QoS technique that attempts to reserve a specific amount of network resources for a transmission before the transmission occurs
RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol)
A companion protocol to RTP, defined in RFC 3550 by the IETF, it provides feedback on the quality of a call or videoconference to its participants
RTCP (Real-time Transport Control Protocol)
A Transport layer protocol used with voice and video transmission. it operates on top of UDP and provides information about packet sequence to help receiving nodes detect delay and packet loss. It also assigns packets a timestamp that corresponds to when the data in the packet was sampled from the voice or video stream. This timestamp helps the receiving node synchronize incoming data.
RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol)
A protocol suite codified by the IETF (in RFC 2543) as a set of Session layer signaling and control protocols for multiservice, packet-based networks. With few exceptions, it performs much the same functions as the H.323 signaling protocols perform. It was developed as a more efficient alternative to H.323 before H.323 was revised to expedite its call setup functions. Although it is more efficient, because it was released later, it never enjoyed the same widespread usage as H.323.
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)
An authentication protocol that operates over PPP and that requires the authenticator to take the first step by offering the other computer a challenge. The requestor responds by combining the challenge with its password, encrypting the new string of characters and sending it to the authenticator. The authenticator matches to see if the requestor's encrypted string of text matches its own encrypted string of characters. If so, the requestor is authenticated and granted access to secured resources.
CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)
A Data Link layer protocol defined by the IETF that specifies the dynamic distribution of encryption keys and a preauthentication process in which a client and server exchange data via an intermediate node (for example, an access point on a wireless LAN). Only after they have mutually authenticated can the client and server exchange encrypted data. It can be used with multipel authentication and encryption schemes.
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)
One of several protocols within SSL, and perhaps the most significant. As its name implies, it allows the client and server to authenticate (or introduce) each other and establishes terms for how they securely exchange data during an SSL session.
handshake protocol
A Layer 3 protocol that defines encryption authentication, and key management for TCP/IP transmissions. It is an enhancement to IPv4 and is native to IPv6. It is unique among authentication methods in that it adds security information to the header of all IP packets.
IPSec (Internet Protocol Security)
An authentication protocol offered by Microsoft with its Windows clients and servers. Similar to CHAP, it uses a three-way handshake to verify a client's credentials and encrypts passwords with a challenge text.
MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)
A simple authentication protocol that operates over PPP. Using this protocol, a client issues its credentials in a request to authenticate, and the server responds with a confirmation or denial of authentication after comparing the credentials to those in its database. It is not very secure and is, therefore, rarely used on modern networks.
PAP (Password Authentication Protocol)
A protocol that runs over UDP and provides centralized network authentication and accounting for multiple users. It is commonly used with dial-up networking, VPNs and wireless connections.
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service)
A protocol available with the proprietary version of SSH that copies files between hosts securely. Like FTP, it first establishes a connection with a host and then allows a remote user to browse directories, list files, and copy files. Unlike FTP, it encrypts data before transmitting it.
SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol)
An encryption key generation and management scheme used by 802.11i
TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol)
A software package or hardware-based tool that can capture and analyze data on a network. These analyzers are more sophisticated than network monitoring tools, as they can typically interpret data up to Layer 7 of the OSI model.
protocol analyzer
A protocol that enables users running this client software to communicate instantly with other participates in a chat room on the Internet
IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
An Application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite used to convey data regarding the status of managed devices on a network
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)

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