nervous system

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Created Jan 25, 2013
by
brittanyshaw

 

 
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1
nervous system
 
coordinates stimuli betweem the internal and external environment
PROPERTIES
irritability-...
2
structural organization of the nervous system
 
CNS- brain and spinal cord
PNS- cranial nerves and spinal nerves that link the brain...
3
PNS
afferent system
 
transmits information from sensory receptors to the CNS
4
PNS
efferent system
 
 transmits information from the CNS to muscles and glands

5
division of the PNS
somatic
 
voluntary division
- requires nerve stimulus. attached to skeletal
concerned...
6
autonomic
 
involuntary division
- controls all internal involuntary responses in the smooth muscle,...
7
visceral
 
internal, central organs
8
Autonomic Nervous System
 
- involuntary
- consists of visceral efferent fibers
- conducts impulses to smooth...
9
sympathetic 
 
- mobilizes energy during stressful situations
- times of emergency, "fight or...
10
parasympathetic
 
- responds to everything back to normal
- slow HR
- constrict pupils back to...
11
cells of the nervous system
 
- neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system
- has a single nucleus, but no...
12
axon coverings
 
- enveloped by a sheath of schwann, also called a neurilemma, which is produced by schwann...
13
larger axons
 
- have an inner sheath of myelin, which functions as an electrical insulator and speeds conduction...
14
axons in CNS 
 
lack a neurilemma sheath
- unmyelinated fibers withoug a neurilemma occur in the gray...
15
sensory 
 
- afferent neuron
conduct impulses from the receptors in the skin
sense organs,...
16
motor neurons
 
- efferent neuron
neurons relay impulses from the CNS to the effectors
17
interneurons
 
- associated neurons
are found entirely within the CNS

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neuroglia
 
commonly called glia, supporting cells of CNS
19
astrocytes
 
- star shaped cells
- vascular feet
- requires glucose, ATP. connect
20
oligodendrocytes
 
similar to schwann cells found in the PNS
- form myelin sheaths that are wrapped around...
21
microglia
 
cells have a phagocytic role
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ependmal cells
 
line the cerebral cavities, form cerebrospinal fluid
23
Nucleus
 
A collection of neuron cell bodies located inside the CNS
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Ganglion
 
Collection of neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS
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Nerve
 
Collection of nerve cell processes located outside the CNS
fibers are held together...
26
Endoneurium
 
Surround each individual nerve fiber
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Perineurium
 
Surround a group if fibers in a fasicle
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Epineurium
 
Surround each group if fascicles 
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Mixed nerves
 
Most peripheral nerves are mixed
they contain both unmyelinated and myelinated afferent...
30
Tract
 
Collection of nerve fibers inside the brain or spinal cord that have a common origin and destination
31
Commissure
 
Band of nerve fibers that joins corresponding opposite sides of the brain or spinal cord
32
Synapses
 
Synaptic space between the axon of the presynaptic neuron and post synaptic dendrites
-...
33
Alkalosis
 
Above pH 7.4
increases neuronal activity
34
Acidosis
 
Below 7.4 
depresses neuronal discharge 
35
Anoxia
 
Depresses neuronal excitability
36
Drug effects
 
Increase or decrease neuronal excitability
caffeine increase passage of impulse
general...
37
Acetylcholine
 
Generally excitatory, inhibitory to some visceral effectors, skeletal muscle
- a chemical
38
Norepinephrine 
 
Excitatory or inhibatiry
found in visceral and cardiac neuromuscular junctions
coccaine...
39
Epinephrine 
 
Excitatory or inhibitory 
found in pathway concerned with behavior and mood
40
Dopamine
 
Excitatory 
foubd in pathway that regulate emotional responses, decreases levels...
41
Serotonin
 
Inhibitory
inhibits excessive discharge of neurons
42
Gamma
 
Aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory, inhibits excessive discharge of neurons
43
Endorphins and enkephalins 
 
Inhibitory, inhibit release of sensory pain neurotransmitters
opiates mimic the effect
44
CNS- brain
 
human brain comprises of 2% of the total body weight
consumes 25% of its oxygen and...
45
forebrain
 
telenephalon, cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia; diencephalon-thalmus and hypothalmus
46
midbrain
 
cerebral peduncles and corpora quadrigemmina
47
hindbrain
 
medulla oblongata, pons and cerebullum
48
central sulcu
 
divide brain into frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital
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corpus callosum
 
myelinated fibers
joins the cerebral hemispheres
50
fissures

sulci
 
deep grooves

shallow grooves
51
longitudinal fissure
 
divides the cerebrum into left and right hemisphere
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occipital lobe
 
primary visual area
53
auditory area
 
receives nerve impulses concerned with hearing
54
primary olfactory area
 
temporal lobe is concerned with the sense of smell
55
primary taste (gustatory)
 
involoved in the preception of taste
56
frontal lobe
 
higher thinking, artisitc, creativity, intuition, problem solving
can live without 
57
somatic
 
positional relationship of body parts
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long and short association tracts
 
interconnect neurons within the same hemisphere
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commissure fibers 
 
connect one hemisphere to the corresponding area of the other hemisphere
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projection fibers
 
ascending and descending pathways coming and going from neurons located in other parts of the...
61
descending tracts


ascending tracts
 
motor, cross over at the level of the medulla, down the cord then out

sensory,...
62
medulla
 
center of crossing over of motor tracts
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cerebral hemisphere
 
main part of the brain
64
diencephalon
 
"between brain"
lies between the cerebrum and the midbrain and is hidden by...
65
thalamus
 
2 oval masses
relay station 
66
hypothalamus
 
most important autonomic nervous system control center
part of the forebrain= cerebrum
67
brain stem
 
includes the midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

68
midbrain
 
contains the corpora quadrigemina, visual and auditory reflex center, the "righting reflex"...
69
hindbrain
 
consists of 3 parts, the pons, the medulla oblongata, the cerebellum
70
pons
 
pneumotaxic aponeustic (control rhythm)
a prominent swelling of the brainstem serves...
71
medulla oblongata
 
located inferior to the pons and superior to the spinal cord
inferior end: located at...
72
cerebellum
 
"little brain"
composed of 2 hemispheres and a central constricted part called...
73
spinal cord
 
oval shaped cylinder, 17-18 inches in adult
inner core is composed of gray matter shaped...
74
functions of spinal cord
 
serves as a center for the reflex arc
serves as pathway for ascending (sensory) tracts
75
reflex

receptors (sensory)

efferent (motor)
 
involuntary response to a stimulus

dorsal side

ventral side
76
reflex arc
 
a place in which incoming sensory impulses become outgoing motor impulses
77
ascending tracts

descending tracts
 
conduct sensory impulses from afferent neurons upward to the brain

conduct impulses...
78
meninges
 
membranes covering of the brain and spinal cord
connective tissue
79
cerebral spinal fluid
 
will be found in the sub arachnoid space
80
dura mater
 
2 layers closely connected except when they separate to form sinuses for venous blood
81
arachnoid
 
delicate fibrous membrane (cobwebby in appearance)
cob web design allows for blood vessels...
82
pia matter
 
very delicate layer filled with blood vessels
83
epidural/extradural space
 
between the dura mater and the vertebrae
epidural space only exists in injuries in the...
84
subdural

subarachnoid
 
between the dura mater and the arachnoid

between the arachnoid and the pia matter....
85
cerebrospinal fluid
 
"water helmet"
a clear watery fluid, formed by filtration of blood
found...
86
ventricles

spinal cord ends

meninges continue down to sacrum
 
spaces in the brain

between L1-L2

ends at L5, cerebrospinal fluid...
87
functions of cerebrospinal fluid
 
acts as a shock absorber
pathway of exchange of nutrient material and waste between...
88
spinal puncture
 
performed betwen the 3-4 lumbar vertebrae with no danger to the cord
89
PNS
 
consists of spinal nerves, cranial nerves, and the autonomic nervous system
90
spinal nerves
 
31 pair, names for the regions of the vertebral column from which they arise
8 pairs-...
91
phrenic 
 
nerve which causes movement to diaphram between 3 and 4
92
cranial nerves
 
12 pair
emerge from the brain

93
ANS
 
involuntary
branch of PNS
visceral efferent system sends motor impulses
2...
94
sympathetic 
 
times of emergency, "fight or flight"
intervate HR
increase pulse
95
parasympathetic
 
responds everything back to normal
neurotransmitter: acetylcholine
slow HR


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