Nervous System

67 cards

Terminology- Patholog


 
  
Created Sep 18, 2012
by
ksceviour

 

 
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1
acetylcholine
 
Neurotransmitter chemical released at the end of nerve cells
2
afferent nerve
 
Carries messages toward brain and spinal cord
3
arachnoid membrane
 
Middle layer of the three membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
4
astrocyte
 
Type of glial cell that transports water and salts from capillaries
5
autonomic nervous system
 
Nerves that contol involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs
6
axon
 
Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
7
blood-brain barrier
 
Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue...
8
brainstem
 
Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; includes the pons...
9
cauda equina
 
Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
10
cell body
 
Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
11
Central Nervous System (CNS)
 
Brain and spinal cord
12
cerebellum
 
Posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
13
cerebral cortex
 
Outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of brain
14
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
 
Circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
15
cerebrum
 
Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste,...
16
cranial nerves
 
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and...
17
dendrite
 
Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse
18
dura mater
 
Outermost layer of meninges surround/protecting brain and spinal cord
19
efferent nerve
 
Carries messages away from brain and spinal cord; motor nerve
20
ependymal cell
 
Glial cell, lines membranes in brain and spinal cord and helps form CSF
21
ganglion (pl: ganglia)
 
Collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS
22
glial cell (neuroglial cell)
 
Supportive and connective nerve cell. Does not carry impulses
23
gyrus (pl: gyri)
 
Sheet of nerve cells that produces round ridge on surface of cerebral cortex; aka convolution
24
hypothalamus
 
Portion of brain beneath Thalamus. Controls sleep, apetite, body temperature and secretions...
25
medulla oblongata
 
In brain just above spinal cord. Controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels....
26
meninges
 
Three protective membranes surround brain and spinal cord
27
microglial cell
 
Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from CNS
28
motor nerve
 
Carries messages away from brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs. Efferent nerve
29
myelin sheath
 
Covering of white fatty tissue surrounding and insulates axon. Myelin speeds impulse conduction...
30
nerve
 
Macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses
31
neuron
 
nerve cell that carries impulses throughout body
32
neurotransmitter
 
chemical messenger released at end of nerve cell. stimulates or inhibits another cell which...
33
oligodendroglial cell
 
Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. aka oligodendrocyte
34
parasympathetic nerves
 
Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as a heart rate, breathing,...
35
parenchyma
 
Essential tissue of organ/system. Nervous System- Brain, spinal cord and neurons. Liver- Hepatocytes....
36
Peripheral Nervous System
 
Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal and autonomic nerves
37
pia mater
 
Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
38
plexus (pl: plexuses)
 
Large, interlacing network of nerves, Ex. lumbosacral, cervical and brachial
39
pons
 
Part of brain anterior to cerebellum and between medulla and rest of midbrain. It's a bridge...
40
receptor
 
Organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves. Skin, ears, eyes...
41
sciatic nerve
 
Nerve extending from base of spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot. Sciatica is pain or...
42
sensory nerve
 
Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve.
43
spinal nerves
 
Thirty-one pairs of nerves arising from spinal cord
44
stimulus (pl:stimuli)
 
Agent of change (light, sound, touch) in internal or external environment that evokes a response
45
stroma
 
Connective and supporting tissue of an organ. Glial cells are stromal tissue of the brain
46
sulcus (pl: sulci)
 
Depression or groove in the surface of cerebral cortex; fissure
47
sympathetic nerves
 
Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress
48
synapse
 
Space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle...
49
thalamus
 
Main relay center in brain. Conducts impulses between spine and cerebrum. Incoming sensory...
50
vagus nerve
 
10th cranial nerve.Branches reach larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus and stomach.It...
51
ventricles of the brain
 
Canals in the brain the contain cerebrospinal fluid
52
absence seizure
 
Minor form of seizure, consists of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness...
53
aneurysm
 
Enlarged, weakened area in arterial wall, may rupture leading to hemorrhage and CVA (stroke)
54
astrocytoma
 
malignant tumor of astrocytes (glial brain cells)
55
aura
 
Peculiar symptom or sensation occuring before onset (prodromal) of an attack of migraine or...
56
dementia
 
Mental decline and deterioration
57
demyelination
 
Destruction of myelin on axons of neurons (as in multiple sclerosis)
58
dopamine
 
CNS neurotransmitter, deficient in patient with Parkinsons
59
embolus
 
Clot of material that travels through the blood stream and suddenly blocks a vessel
60
gait
 
Manner of walking
61
ictal event
 
Sudden, acute onset, as with the convulsions of an epileptic seizure
62
occlusion
 
Blockage
63
palliative
 
Relieving symptoms but not curing them
64
thymectomy
 
removal of thymus gland (a lymphocyte-producing gland); used as treatment for myasthenia gravis
65
TIA
 
Transient ischemic attack
66
tic
 
Involuntary movement of a small group of muscles, as of the face; characteristic of Tourette...
67
tonic-clonic seizure
 
Major convulsive seizure by sudden loss of consciousness, stiffening of muscles, and twitching...


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