NCLEX: Meds

NCLEX: Meds NCLEX: Meds
Changes are done, please view the flashcard.

Preview Flashcards

Front Back
What is prazosin?
 
Alpha-adrenergic Blocker (Antagonist) Prazosin is in a class of drugs called alpha-adrenergic blockers. Prazosin causes the blood vessels (veins and arteries) to relax and expand, which allows blood to pass more easily through them. Prazosin is used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
What is metoprolol?
 
Beta-adrenergic Blocker (Antagonist) Metoprolol is in a group of drugs called beta-blockers. Beta-blockers affect the heart and circulation (blood flow through arteries and veins). Metoprolol is used to treat angina (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). It is also used to treat or prevent heart attack.
What is diazepam (Valium)
 
Benzodiazepine Diazepam is in a group of drugs called benzodiazepines (ben-zoe-dye-AZE-eh-peens). Diazepam affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause anxiety. Diazepam is used to treat anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal symptoms, or muscle spasms. Diazepam is sometimes used with other medications to treat seizures.
What is lisinopril?
 
Lisinopril is in a group of drugs called ACE inhibitors. ACE stands for angiotensin converting enzyme. Lisinopril is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), congestive heart failure, and to improve survival after a heart attack.
What is candesartan?
 
ARB Candesartan is in a group of drugs called angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Candesartan keeps blood vessels from narrowing, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow. Candesartan is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). It is sometimes given together with other blood pressure medications. Candesartan is also used to treat kidney problems caused by type 2 (not insulin-dependent) diabetes.
What is amlodipine (Norvasc)?
 
Amlodipine is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Amlodipine relaxes (widens) blood vessels and improves blood flow. Amlodipine is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) or chest pain (angina).
What is atorvastatin (Lipitor)?
 
Lipid-lowering drug Atorvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering medication that blocks the production of cholesterol (a type of fat) in the body. Atorvastatin reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol in the blood. Lowering your cholesterol can help prevent heart disease and hardening of the arteries, conditions that can lead to heart attack, stroke, and vascular disease. Atorvastatin is used to treat high cholesterol. Atorvastatin is also used to lower the risk of stroke, heart attack, or other heart complications in people with coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes.
What is Alteplase
 
Thrombolytic Mechanism of Action converts plasminogen to plasmin, promoting fibrinolysis (tissue plasminogen activator)
What is enoxaparin (Lovenox)
 
Anticoagulant Enoxaparin is a blood thinner, also called anticoagulant (an-tye-koe-AG-yoo-lant). Enoxaparin prevents the formation of blood clots. Enoxaparin is used to prevent blood clots that are sometimes called deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which can lead to blood clots in the lungs. A DVT can occur after certain types of surgery, or in people who are bed-ridden due to a prolonged illness. DVT sometimes occurs suddenly for other reasons. Enoxaparin is also used to prevent blood vessel complications in people with certain types of angina (chest pain) or heart attacks called non-Q-wave myocardial infarction or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
What is prednisone?
 
Corticosteroid Prednisone is in a class of drugs called steroids. Prednisone prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation. Prednisone is used to treat many different conditions such as allergic disorders, skin conditions, ulcerative colitis, arthritis, lupus, psoriasis, or breathing disorders.
What is alendronate (Fosamax)?
 
bisphosphonate for osteoporosis Alendronate is in the group of medicines called bisphosphonates (bis FOS fo nayts). It alters the cycle of bone formation and breakdown in the body. Alendronate slows bone loss while increasing bone mass, which may prevent bone fractures. Alendronate is used to treat or prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis and steroid-induced osteoporosis. Alendronate is also used to treat Paget's disease of bone.
What is albuterol?
 
Bronchodilator Albuterol works by relaxing muscles in the airways to improve breathing. Albuterol is used to treat bronchospasm (wheezing, shortness of breath) associated with reversible obstructive airway disease such as asthma.
What is cimetidine (Tagamet)?


 
Histamine2 blocker - acid reducer Cimetidine is in a group of drugs called histamine receptor antagonists. Cimetidine works by decreasing the amount of acid your stomach produces. Cimetidine is used to treat and prevent certain types of ulcer, and to treat conditions that cause the stomach to produce too much acid. Cimetidine is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), when stomach acid backs up into the esophagus and causes heartburn.
What is omeprazole (Prilosec)?
 
Protein pump inhibitor - acid reducer Omeprazole decreases the amount of acid produced in the stomach. Omeprazole is used to treat symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and other conditions caused by excess stomach acid. Omeprazole is also used to promote healing of erosive esophagitis (damage to your esophagus caused by stomach acid). Omeprazole may also be given together with antibiotics to treat gastric ulcer caused by infection with helicobacter pylori (H. pylori).
What is amoxicillin?
 
Penicillin antibiotic. Amoxicillin is an antibiotic in the penicillin group of drugs. It fights bacteria in your body. Amoxicillin is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria, such as ear infections, bladder infections, pneumonia, gonorrhea, and E. coli or salmonella infection. Amoxicillin is also sometimes used together with another antibiotic called clarithromycin (Biaxin) to treat stomach ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. This combination is sometimes used with a stomach acid reducer called lansoprazole (Prevacid).
What is cefazolin (Ancef)?
 
Penicillin antibiotic. Amoxicillin is an antibiotic in the penicillin group of drugs. It fights bacteria in your body. Amoxicillin is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria, such as ear infections, bladder infections, pneumonia, gonorrhea, and E. coli or salmonella infection. Amoxicillin is also sometimes used together with another antibiotic called clarithromycin (Biaxin) to treat stomach ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. This combination is sometimes used with a stomach acid reducer called lansoprazole (Prevacid).
What is cefazolin (Ancef)?
 
Penicillin antibiotic. Amoxicillin is an antibiotic in the penicillin group of drugs. It fights bacteria in your body. Amoxicillin is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria, such as ear infections, bladder infections, pneumonia, gonorrhea, and E. coli or salmonella infection. Amoxicillin is also sometimes used together with another antibiotic called clarithromycin (Biaxin) to treat stomach ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. This combination is sometimes used with a stomach acid reducer called lansoprazole (Prevacid).
What is cefazolin (Ancef)
 
Cephalosporin antibiotic. Cefazolin is in a group of drugs called cephalosporin (SEF a low spor in) antibiotics. It works by fighting bacteria in your body. Cefazolin injection is used to treat many kinds of bacterial infections, including severe or life-threatening forms.
What is tetracycline?
 
Tetracycline antibiotic. Tetracycline is an antibiotic that fights bacteria in the body. Tetracycline is used to treat many different bacterial infections, such as urinary tract infections, acne, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and others.
What is levofloxacin (Levaquin)?
 
Fluoroquinolones antibiotic. Levofloxacin is in a group of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones (flor-o-KWIN-o-lones). Levofloxacin fights bacteria in the body. Levofloxacin is used to treat bacterial infections of the skin, sinuses, kidneys, bladder, or prostate. Levofloxacin is also used to treat bacterial infections that cause bronchitis or pneumonia, and to treat people who have been exposed to anthrax.
What is azithromycin (Zithromax)?
 
Macrolide antibiotic. Azithromycin is in a group of drugs called macrolide antibiotics. Azithromycin fights bacteria in the body. Azithromycin is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria, such as respiratory infections, skin infections, ear infections, and sexually transmitted diseases.
What is gentamicin?
 
Aminoglycoside antibiotic. Also look for -mycin Gentamicin is an antibiotic. It fights bacteria in the body. Gentamicin is used to treat severe or serious bacterial infections.
What is itraconazole?
 
Antifungal antibiotic. Itraconazole is an antifungal antibiotic. Itraconazole is used to treat infections caused by fungus, which can invade any part of the body including the lungs, mouth or throat, toenails, or fingernails.
What is alprazolam?
 
Benzodiazepine. Alprazolam is in a group of drugs called benzodiazepines (ben-zoe-dye-AZE-eh-peens). Alprazolam affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause anxiety. Alprazolam is used to treat anxiety disorders, panic disorders, and anxiety caused by depression.
What is meperidine (Demerol)?
 
Narcotic analgesic. Don't confuse it with -tidine!!!! Meperidine is in a group of drugs called narcotic pain relievers. It is similar to morphine. Meperidine is used to treat moderate-to-severe pain.
-zine:
 
can it be sedative / anti-psychotic med ???? - Trifluoperazine (Stelazine) - chlorpromazine (Thorazine) - anti-psychotic
-zapine
 
olanzapine (Zyprexa) and clozapine (Clorazil) - anti-psychotic med - S/E: example side effects to look for - extrapyramidial symptoms (stiffness and tremors) - Zyprexa - suppress bone marrow and cause agranulocytosis - Clorazil
Lithium (Lithane)
 
- regular sodium intake and adequate fluid intake
SULFA-
SULFO-
 
sulfasalazine (Azulfidine) sulfonamides used to treat inflammatory bowel disease ie. ulcerative colitis
What is butorphanol nasal (Stadol)?
 
Butorphanol is in a group of drugs called narcotic pain relievers. It is similar to morphine. Butorphanol is used to treat moderate to severe pain.
What is magnesium sulfate injection?
 
Magnesium is a naturally occurring mineral. Magnesium is important for many systems in the body especially the muscles and nerves. Magnesium sulfate injection is used to used to control low blood levels of magnesium (hypomagnesemia). Magnesium sulfate injection is also used for pediatric acute nephritis and to prevent seizures in severe pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, or toxemia of pregnancy. It is a CNS depressant; s/e is oliguria.
What is metronidazole (Flagyl)?
 
Metronidazole is an antibiotic. It fights bacteria in your body. Metronidazole is used to treat bacterial infections of the vagina, stomach, skin, joints, and respiratory tract. This medication will not treat a vaginal yeast infection. Metronidazole may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.
What is risperidone (Risperidal)?
 
Risperidone is an antipsychotic medication. It works by changing the effects of chemicals in the brain. Risperidone is used to treat schizophrenia and symptoms of bipolar disorder (manic depression). Risperidone is also used in autistic children to treat symptoms of irritability. Risperidone may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.
What is tranylcypromine?
 
Parnate (tranylcypromine) - a MAO inhibitor - avoid food with tyramine (aged cheese, yogurt, beer, wine) to prevent hypertensive crisis. Tranylcypromine is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that works by increasing the levels of certain chemicals in the brain. Tranylcypromine is used to treat major depressive episode in adults. This medication is usually given after other anti-depressants have been tried without successful treatment of symptoms. Tranylcypromine will not treat bipolar disorder (manic depression).
Amphojel
 
an antacid
Aminophylline
 
a bronchodilator drug combination that contains theophylline and ethylenediamine in 2:1 ratio
NSAIDS i.e. Motrin
 
- can cause GI distress, take with meals.
FLUID (SOLUTION) TYPES:
 
1. Isotonic used to replace electrolytes - example: 0.9 % NaCl, LR 2. HYPERtonic *NOT* used for dehydration - D5NS 3. HYPOtonic corrects dehydration by shifting fluid into intercellular space. - 0.45% NaCl
IF stool turns very dark
 
indicates GI bleeding
Anti-dote for anti-pyschotic meds is
 
Congentin or Artane
Beta blockers may mask what symptoms?
 
May mask symptoms of HYPOglycemia (Diabetes)
ACE inhibitors can cause what symptoms?
 
ACE inhibitors can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
Drug of choice for PVC's?
 
Lidocaine
Drug of choice for MI?
 
Morphine sulfate.
NSAIDS S/E:
 
like ibuprofen (Motrin) S/E: - Tinnitus (higher priority) - GI distress
Enalapril maleate (Vasotec) What can it be used for?
 
ACE Inhibitor

- for mild hypertension
Demerol can mask ???
 
If pt in accident, be careful when giving Demerol.

Pt may have increased ICP. Demerol masks ICP. Do not give.
Drug of choice for diabetes insipidus
 
desmopressin acetate (DDAVP)
Amoxicillin trihydrate (Amoxil): administration
 
remember to shake bottle; particles aren’t totally dissolved in a suspension.
Prednisone causes ???
- administration
- long term use
 
HYPERglycemia
- should be taken with meals (causes gastric irritation).
- Long term use can cause osteoporosis.
Sorbitol
 
(natural laxative and sweetener) may be in liquid medication; may cause diarrhea
Med for HYPERkalemia
 
sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)
Insulin NPH peak
 
8 – 12 hrs
Insulin Semilente peaks
 
8 – 12 hrs
Insulin Lente effective for
 
24 – 36 hrs
Reg insulin onset
 
0.5 – 1 hr
African Americans – Heart meds
 
- Beta blockers and ACE inhibitors less effective with African Americans
- Better to use CCB like Nifedipine
Beta blockers contraindicated for those with
 
1. hx of bronchial asthma > may cause bronchospasm.
2. uncompensated Heart Failure and pulmonary edema
Antidote for Bblocker toxicity
 
Glucagon
How Glucagon can help Beta Blocker OD's?
 
Glucagon receptor is found in the heart. You cannot use epi in treatment since epi needs Beta receptors that have been blocked.

What you need to do in ODs, is maintain blood pressure and prevent arrhythmias. Glucagon does this as its receptor is Gs Protein coupled. This means it increase cAMP (just like the Beta-1 receptor). Basically it is a back door way to "activate" Beta-1 by causing the same downstream effects in the same target organ, without using the Beta-1 receptor.

Note that the Glucagon is given IV, not IM, and not reconstituted with the diluent provided.
What is glucagon?
 
Glucagon is a hormone produced in the pancreas. It increases blood sugar levels.

Glucagon is used to treat insulin coma or insulin reaction resulting from severe hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).

How BB “mask” signs of ???
 
The reason for B-blocker masking the hypoglycemia is b/c B-blockers inhibit flight, fright n fight response by blocking symp. Activity, which is very crucial in DM

If pt doesn't have any clues he would be unable to take any action and might die without knowing what went wrong.





How does BB cause ???
 
How does BB cause HYPERglycemia?

Note: B2 (via Epi) stimulation causes increase gycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis & increase insulin secretion, which helps decrease blood glucose.

If we block B2 receptors, the insulin secretion will decrease, which will cause HYPERglycemia.
What is Glucophage (Metformin)?
 
Metformin is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels.

Metformin should be taken with meals to prevent N/V, abd cramps.
If taking anti-anxiety meds, S&S to be concerned
 
drowsiness
Flu vaccine
 
egg allergy
Pain med okay for hemophilia pts?
 
Percodan = oxycodone with aspirin; No for hemophilia
Pain meds (2) NOT okay for hemophilia pts?
 
1. oxycodone with acetaminophen; ok for hemophilia pts.

2. Motrin = No for hemophilia, decrease platelet aggregation
Indomethacin (Indocin) - drug class?
 
NSAID
Bethanechol (Urecholine)
 
cholinergic (parasympathomimetic):
- treat functional urinary retention > help pee
Dicyclomine (Bentyl)
 
An anti-cholinergic. Promotes urinary retention
Carbamazepine (Tegretol) - drug class?
 
anticonvulsant med
Doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) - S&S to be concerned?
 
fever & sore throat > sign of infection > bone marrow depression
phenelzine sulfate (Nardil) - Diet & S&S
 
MAOi
- NO eating food with tyramine.
- ex: aged cheese, beer, wine, yogurt AND bananas, yes bananas!!!!
- eating aged cheese like grilled cheddar cheese on wheat bread > may cause HYPERtensive crisis.
- another S&S may be slurred speech
Vit B6
 
TB
Vit B12
 
pernicious anemia
ethacrynic acid (Edecrin) and furosemide (Lasix)
 
Loop diuretics:
- K wasting; encourage pt to eat K rich foods like OJ, bananas, broccoli, spinach, cantaloupe.
- Yup! Better to choose to drink orange juice than water to restore K lost by Lasix!!!!
Clonidine (Catapres) transdermal patch
 
- alpha-adrenergic for HYPERtension

- change q 7 days
Lithium - Expected S&S
 
Anti-manic med.Pt expected to be thirsty, have fine hand tremors, mild nausea, freq urination til therapeutic level reached (in 7 – 10 days); this ok and again expected.
Lithium: EARLY sign of tox
 
N/V, slurred speech, muscle weakness
Lithium: LATE sign of tox
 
Ataxia
Clozapine (Clorazil) - drug class?
 
antipsychotic med
If pt is going to surgery is on prednisone, anticipate increase or decrease of dosage ???
 
Anticipate the INCREASE of dosage before surgery because surgery INCREASES the demand for corticosteroids.
What is disulfiram (Antabuse):?

 
Disulfiram interferes with the metabolism of alcohol resulting in unpleasant effects when alcohol is consumed. Disulfiram is used to treat chronic alcoholism.

NOTE: avoid OTC cold meds b/c it contains alcohol.
Theophylline (aminophylline) - drug class and S&S?
 
bronchodilator

S/E: tachy
MI > Morphine sulfate
 
decrease blood to heart > decrease peripheral resistance
Dopamine (vasoactive med) > if HYPOtensive
 
increase blood to heart > increase peripheral resistance
Prochlorperazine (Compazine) - drug class?
 
anti-emetic
Hydralazine hydrochloride (Apresoline)
 
Vasodilator = anti-hypertensive
Diazepam (Valium)
 
benzodiazepine for anxiety, seizures
Pentamidine isethionate (Pentam) - drug class?
 
antiprotozal agent
Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) - drug class?
 
anti-psychotic and anti-emetic
Metoclopramide hydrochloride (Reglan)
 
stimulates motility of upper GI tract; used for nausea for chemotherapy.
What is cisplatin (Platinol)?

 
Cisplatin is an antineoplastic medication. Cisplatin interferes with the growth of cancer cells and slows their growth and spread in the body.
What is phenazopyridine (Pyridium)?

 
Phenazopyridine is a pain reliever that affects the lower part of your urinary tract (bladder and urethra).
Phenazopyridine is used to treat pain, burning, increased urination, and increased urge to urinate.
Topiramate (Topamax) - drug class?
 
anti-convulsant
Insulin scenario:
Before NPH 40 units @ 7am
After NPH 30 units, Reg insulin 10 units @ 7am
Insulin reaction should occur at what time?
 
Answer = 11:00 am
Aluminum hydroxide gel (Amphojel) - drug class and what is it used for?
 
antacid > prevents epigastric pain.
- take 1 hr AFTER meal.
Aspirin - Nursing considerations
 
Do not give together with other anticoagulants.

Stop taking Aspirin some days before surgery.

Do not give to children with viral infection(Reye syndrome)
NSAID’s - Nursing considerations
 
e.g. Ibuprofen

Take with food;

contraindicated for people with GI ulcers
Morphine - Concerned S/E?
 
A respiratory depressant. It should be withheld if the respirations are below 10.

Dilantin - S/E?
 
Causes gum hyperplasia. Advice client to visit dentist frequently.
Predisone: S&S and S/E?
 
An anti-inflammatory / steroid

Causes Cushing like symptoms.

Common side effects are immunosupression(monitor client for infection), hyperglycemia
Heparin: Lab and antidote?
 
PTT.

Antidote is protamine sulfate
Coumadin: Lab and antidote?
 
PT.

Antidote is Vitamin K
Cogentin
 
Anti-Parkinsonian meds

Cogentin: Used to treat EPS
Sinemet
 
Anti-Parkinsonian meds

Sinemet: Drug is effective when tremors are not observed
Theophylline/Aminophylline
 
Resp. Side effects: Tachycardia
Digoxin (Lanoxin): Signs of toxicity:
 
Pt will complaint of visual change in colors.

They would also complain of loss of appetite.
Magnesium Sulfate: Monitor for ???
 
Anti-hypertensive (Pre-eclampsia)

Monitor for deep tendon reflex and respiratory depression
Hydrochlothiazide: Monitor
 
potassium levels
Lasix: Monitor
 
potassium levels
Aldactone:
 
Potassium sparing
Lithium Carbonate:

Ther. range
Diet
 
(0.8 to 1.2mEq).

Also know symptoms of toxicity.

Adequate fluid and salt intake is important.
Disulfiram (Antabuse) - Used for and nursing considerations?
 
Used for alcohol aversion therapy.

Clients started on Disulfiram must avoid any form of alcohol or they would develop a severe reaction.

Teach pt to avoid some over-the-counter cough preparations, mouthwash etc.
Oxytocin: Assess ???
 
Assess uterus frequently for tetanic contraction.
Narcan - Used for?
 
Reverses the effects of narcotics
Calcium Gluconate - Used for?
 
Antidote for magnesium sulfate
Vitamin K - Used for?
 
Antidote for Coumadin
carbamazepine (Tegretol): side effects.
 
signs of an allergic reaction
fever, sore throat
confusion, headache
N/V
Atropine - drug class? Used for?
 
anti-spasmodic / anticholinergic.

used for tx of spastic bladder and bowel; diverticulitis, peptic ulcer disease, irritable bowel syndrome
Epogen - Used for?
 
Used in treating anemia because it increases RBC production.
Acyclovir - drug class and used for?
 
anti-viral medication; used in treating herpes zoster (shingles).
Enter Password

  

Upgrade and get a lot more done!
Upgrade