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NCLEX: Meds

NCLEX: Meds
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What is prazosin?
Alpha-adrenergic Blocker (Antagonist) Prazosin is in a class of drugs called alpha-adrenergic blockers. Prazosin causes the blood vessels (veins and arteries) to relax and...
What is metoprolol?
Beta-adrenergic Blocker (Antagonist) Metoprolol is in a group of drugs called beta-blockers. Beta-blockers affect the heart and circulation (blood flow through arteries and...
What is diazepam (Valium)
Benzodiazepine Diazepam is in a group of drugs called benzodiazepines (ben-zoe-dye-AZE-eh-peens). Diazepam affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and...
What is lisinopril?
Lisinopril is in a group of drugs called ACE inhibitors. ACE stands for angiotensin converting enzyme. Lisinopril is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), congestive...
What is candesartan?
ARB Candesartan is in a group of drugs called angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Candesartan keeps blood vessels from narrowing, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood...
What is amlodipine (Norvasc)?
Amlodipine is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Amlodipine relaxes (widens) blood vessels and improves blood flow. Amlodipine is used to treat high blood...
What is atorvastatin (Lipitor)?
Lipid-lowering drug Atorvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering medication that blocks the production of cholesterol (a type of fat) in the body. Atorvastatin reduces...
What is Alteplase
Thrombolytic Mechanism of Action converts plasminogen to plasmin, promoting fibrinolysis (tissue plasminogen activator)
What is enoxaparin (Lovenox)
Anticoagulant Enoxaparin is a blood thinner, also called anticoagulant (an-tye-koe-AG-yoo-lant). Enoxaparin prevents the formation of blood clots. Enoxaparin is...
What is prednisone?
Corticosteroid Prednisone is in a class of drugs called steroids. Prednisone prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation. Prednisone is...
What is alendronate (Fosamax)?
bisphosphonate for osteoporosis Alendronate is in the group of medicines called bisphosphonates (bis FOS fo nayts). It alters the cycle of bone formation and breakdown in...
What is albuterol?
Bronchodilator Albuterol works by relaxing muscles in the airways to improve breathing. Albuterol is used to treat bronchospasm (wheezing, shortness of breath) associated...
What is cimetidine (Tagamet)?
Histamine2 blocker - acid reducer Cimetidine is in a group of drugs called histamine receptor antagonists. Cimetidine works by decreasing the amount of acid your stomach...
What is omeprazole (Prilosec)?
Protein pump inhibitor - acid reducer Omeprazole decreases the amount of acid produced in the stomach. Omeprazole is used to treat symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux...
What is amoxicillin?
Penicillin antibiotic. Amoxicillin is an antibiotic in the penicillin group of drugs. It fights bacteria in your body. Amoxicillin is used to treat many different...
What is cefazolin (Ancef)?
Penicillin antibiotic. Amoxicillin is an antibiotic in the penicillin group of drugs. It fights bacteria in your body. Amoxicillin is used to treat many different...
What is cefazolin (Ancef)?
Penicillin antibiotic. Amoxicillin is an antibiotic in the penicillin group of drugs. It fights bacteria in your body. Amoxicillin is used to treat many different...
What is cefazolin (Ancef)
Cephalosporin antibiotic. Cefazolin is in a group of drugs called cephalosporin (SEF a low spor in) antibiotics. It works by fighting bacteria in your body. Cefazolin injection...
What is tetracycline?
Tetracycline antibiotic. Tetracycline is an antibiotic that fights bacteria in the body. Tetracycline is used to treat many different bacterial infections, such as...
What is levofloxacin (Levaquin)?
Fluoroquinolones antibiotic. Levofloxacin is in a group of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones (flor-o-KWIN-o-lones). Levofloxacin fights bacteria in the body. Levofloxacin is...
What is azithromycin (Zithromax)?
Macrolide antibiotic. Azithromycin is in a group of drugs called macrolide antibiotics. Azithromycin fights bacteria in the body. Azithromycin is used to treat many...
What is gentamicin?
Aminoglycoside antibiotic. Also look for -mycin Gentamicin is an antibiotic. It fights bacteria in the body. Gentamicin is used to treat severe or serious...
What is itraconazole?
Antifungal antibiotic. Itraconazole is an antifungal antibiotic. Itraconazole is used to treat infections caused by fungus, which can invade any part of the body...
What is alprazolam?
Benzodiazepine. Alprazolam is in a group of drugs called benzodiazepines (ben-zoe-dye-AZE-eh-peens). Alprazolam affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced...
What is meperidine (Demerol)?
Narcotic analgesic. Don't confuse it with -tidine!!!! Meperidine is in a group of drugs called narcotic pain relievers. It is similar to morphine. Meperidine is...
-zine:
can it be sedative / anti-psychotic med ???? - Trifluoperazine (Stelazine) - chlorpromazine (Thorazine) - anti-psychotic
-zapine
olanzapine (Zyprexa) and clozapine (Clorazil) - anti-psychotic med - S/E: example side effects to look for - extrapyramidial symptoms (stiffness and tremors) - Zyprexa ...
Lithium (Lithane)
- regular sodium intake and adequate fluid intake
SULFA- SULFO-
sulfasalazine (Azulfidine) sulfonamides used to treat inflammatory bowel disease ie. ulcerative colitis
What is butorphanol nasal (Stadol)?
Butorphanol is in a group of drugs called narcotic pain relievers. It is similar to morphine. Butorphanol is used to treat moderate to severe pain.
What is magnesium sulfate injection?
Magnesium is a naturally occurring mineral. Magnesium is important for many systems in the body especially the muscles and nerves. Magnesium sulfate injection is used to...
What is metronidazole (Flagyl)?
Metronidazole is an antibiotic. It fights bacteria in your body. Metronidazole is used to treat bacterial infections of the vagina, stomach, skin, joints, and respiratory...
What is risperidone (Risperidal)?
Risperidone is an antipsychotic medication. It works by changing the effects of chemicals in the brain. Risperidone is used to treat schizophrenia and symptoms of bipolar...
What is tranylcypromine?
Parnate (tranylcypromine) - a MAO inhibitor - avoid food with tyramine (aged cheese, yogurt, beer, wine) to prevent hypertensive crisis. Tranylcypromine is a monoamine...
Amphojel
an antacid
Aminophylline
a bronchodilator drug combination that contains theophylline and ethylenediamine in 2:1 ratio
NSAIDS i.e. Motrin
- can cause GI distress, take with meals.
FLUID (SOLUTION) TYPES:
1. Isotonic used to replace electrolytes - example: 0.9 % NaCl, LR 2. HYPERtonic *NOT* used for dehydration - D5NS 3. HYPOtonic corrects dehydration...
IF stool turns very dark
indicates GI bleeding
Anti-dote for anti-pyschotic meds is
Congentin or Artane
Beta blockers may mask what symptoms?
May mask symptoms of HYPOglycemia (Diabetes)
ACE inhibitors can cause what symptoms?
ACE inhibitors can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
Drug of choice for PVC's?
Lidocaine
Drug of choice for MI?
Morphine sulfate.
NSAIDS S/E:
like ibuprofen (Motrin) S/E: -         Tinnitus (higher priority) -         GI distress
Enalapril maleate (Vasotec) What can it be used for?
ACE Inhibitor- for mild hypertension
Demerol can mask ???
If pt in accident, be careful when giving Demerol. Pt may have increased ICP. Demerol masks ICP. Do not give.
Drug of choice for diabetes insipidus
desmopressin acetate (DDAVP)
Amoxicillin trihydrate (Amoxil): administration
remember to shake bottle; particles aren’t totally dissolved in a suspension.
Prednisone causes ???- administration- long term use
HYPERglycemia- should be taken with meals (causes gastric irritation).- Long term use can cause osteoporosis.
Sorbitol
(natural laxative and sweetener) may be in liquid medication; may cause diarrhea
Med for HYPERkalemia
sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)
Insulin NPH peak
8 – 12 hrs
Insulin Semilente peaks
8 – 12 hrs
Insulin Lente effective for
24 – 36 hrs
Reg insulin onset
0.5 – 1 hr
African Americans – Heart meds
- Beta blockers and ACE inhibitors less effective with African Americans- Better to use CCB like Nifedipine
Beta blockers contraindicated for those with
1. hx of bronchial asthma > may cause bronchospasm.2. uncompensated Heart Failure and pulmonary edema
Antidote for Bblocker toxicity
Glucagon
How Glucagon can help Beta Blocker OD's?
Glucagon receptor is found in the heart. You cannot use epi in treatment since epi needs Beta receptors that have been blocked.What you need to do in ODs, is maintain blood pressure...
What is glucagon?
Glucagon is a hormone produced in the pancreas. It increases blood sugar levels.Glucagon is used to treat insulin coma or insulin reaction resulting from severe hypoglycemia (low blood...
How BB “mask” signs of ???
The reason for B-blocker masking the hypoglycemia is b/c B-blockers inhibit flight, fright n fight response by blocking symp. Activity, which is very crucial in DMIf pt doesn't have...
How does BB cause ???
How does BB cause HYPERglycemia?Note: B2 (via Epi) stimulation causes increase gycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis & increase insulin secretion, which helps decrease blood glucose. If...
What is Glucophage (Metformin)?
Metformin is an oral diabetes medicine that helps control blood sugar levels. Metformin should be taken with meals to prevent N/V, abd cramps.
If taking anti-anxiety meds, S&S to be concerned
drowsiness
Flu vaccine
egg allergy
Pain med okay for hemophilia pts?
Percodan = oxycodone with aspirin; No for hemophilia
Pain meds (2) NOT okay for hemophilia pts?
1. oxycodone with acetaminophen; ok for hemophilia pts.2. Motrin = No for hemophilia, decrease platelet aggregation
Indomethacin (Indocin)  - drug class?
NSAID
Bethanechol (Urecholine)
cholinergic (parasympathomimetic):- treat functional urinary retention > help pee
Dicyclomine (Bentyl)
An anti-cholinergic. Promotes urinary retention
Carbamazepine (Tegretol) - drug class?
anticonvulsant med
Doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) - S&S to be concerned?
fever & sore throat > sign of infection >  bone marrow depression
phenelzine sulfate (Nardil) - Diet & S&S
MAOi - NO eating food with tyramine.   - ex: aged cheese, beer, wine, yogurt AND bananas, yes bananas!!!!  - eating aged cheese like grilled cheddar cheese on wheat bread...
Vit B6
TB
Vit B12
pernicious anemia
ethacrynic acid (Edecrin) and furosemide (Lasix)
Loop diuretics:- K wasting; encourage pt to eat K rich foods like OJ, bananas, broccoli, spinach, cantaloupe.- Yup! Better to choose to drink orange juice than water to restore K lost...
Clonidine (Catapres) transdermal patch
- alpha-adrenergic for HYPERtension- change q 7 days
Lithium - Expected S&S
Anti-manic med.Pt expected to be thirsty, have fine hand tremors, mild nausea, freq urination til therapeutic level reached (in 7 – 10 days); this ok and again expected.
Lithium: EARLY sign of tox
N/V, slurred speech, muscle weakness
Lithium: LATE sign of tox
Ataxia
Clozapine (Clorazil) - drug class?
antipsychotic med
If pt is going to surgery is on prednisone, anticipate increase or decrease of dosage ???
Anticipate the INCREASE of dosage before surgery because surgery INCREASES the demand for corticosteroids.
What is disulfiram (Antabuse):?
Disulfiram interferes with the metabolism of alcohol resulting in unpleasant effects when alcohol is consumed. Disulfiram is used to treat chronic alcoholism.NOTE: avoid OTC cold meds...
Theophylline (aminophylline) - drug class and S&S?
bronchodilatorS/E: tachy
MI > Morphine sulfate
decrease blood to heart > decrease peripheral resistance
Dopamine (vasoactive med) > if HYPOtensive
increase blood to heart  > increase peripheral resistance
Prochlorperazine (Compazine) - drug class?
anti-emetic
Hydralazine hydrochloride (Apresoline)
Vasodilator = anti-hypertensive
Diazepam (Valium)
benzodiazepine for anxiety, seizures
Pentamidine isethionate (Pentam) - drug class?
antiprotozal agent
Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) - drug class?
anti-psychotic and anti-emetic
Metoclopramide hydrochloride (Reglan)
stimulates motility of upper GI tract; used for nausea for chemotherapy.
What is cisplatin (Platinol)?
Cisplatin is an antineoplastic medication. Cisplatin interferes with the growth of cancer cells and slows their growth and spread in the body.
What is phenazopyridine (Pyridium)?
Phenazopyridine is a pain reliever that affects the lower part of your urinary tract (bladder and urethra).Phenazopyridine is used to treat pain, burning, increased urination, and increased...
Topiramate (Topamax) - drug class?
anti-convulsant
Insulin scenario:  Before NPH 40 units @ 7am  After NPH 30 units, Reg insulin 10 units @ 7am  Insulin reaction should occur at what time?
Answer = 11:00 am
Aluminum hydroxide gel (Amphojel) - drug class and what is it used for?
antacid > prevents epigastric pain.- take 1 hr AFTER meal.
Aspirin - Nursing considerations
Do not give together with other anticoagulants. Stop taking Aspirin some days before surgery. Do not give to children with viral infection(Reye syndrome)
NSAID’s - Nursing considerations
e.g. IbuprofenTake with food; contraindicated for people with GI ulcers
Morphine - Concerned S/E?
A respiratory depressant. It should be withheld if the respirations are below 10.
Dilantin - S/E?
Causes gum hyperplasia. Advice client to visit dentist frequently.
Predisone: S&S and S/E?
An anti-inflammatory / steroidCauses Cushing like symptoms. Common side effects are immunosupression(monitor client for infection), hyperglycemia
Heparin: Lab and antidote?
PTT. Antidote is protamine sulfate
Coumadin: Lab and antidote?
PT. Antidote is Vitamin K
Cogentin
Anti-Parkinsonian medsCogentin: Used to treat EPS
Sinemet
Anti-Parkinsonian medsSinemet: Drug is effective when tremors are not observed
Theophylline/Aminophylline
Resp. Side effects: Tachycardia
Digoxin (Lanoxin): Signs of toxicity:
Pt will complaint of visual change in colors. They would also complain of loss of appetite.
Magnesium Sulfate: Monitor for ???
Anti-hypertensive (Pre-eclampsia)Monitor for deep tendon reflex and respiratory depression
Hydrochlothiazide: Monitor
potassium levels
Lasix: Monitor
potassium levels
Aldactone:
Potassium sparing
Lithium Carbonate: Ther. rangeDiet
(0.8 to 1.2mEq). Also know symptoms of toxicity. Adequate fluid and salt intake is important.
Disulfiram (Antabuse) - Used for and nursing considerations?
Used for alcohol aversion therapy. Clients started on Disulfiram must avoid any form of alcohol or they would develop a severe reaction. Teach pt to avoid some over-the-counter cough...
Oxytocin: Assess ???
Assess uterus frequently for tetanic contraction.
Narcan - Used for?
Reverses the effects of narcotics
Calcium Gluconate - Used for?
Antidote for magnesium sulfate
Vitamin K - Used for?
Antidote for Coumadin
carbamazepine (Tegretol): side effects.
signs of an allergic reactionfever, sore throatconfusion, headacheN/V
Atropine - drug class? Used for?
anti-spasmodic / anticholinergic.used for tx of spastic bladder and bowel; diverticulitis, peptic ulcer disease, irritable bowel syndrome
Epogen - Used for?
Used in treating anemia because it increases RBC production.
Acyclovir - drug class and used for?
anti-viral medication; used in treating herpes zoster (shingles).


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