Side ASide B
What subsistence pattern existed in the Northern U.S. upon first contact?
Because it was cold, they were hunters, gatherers, and fishers.
What subsistence pattern existed in the Southern U.S. upon first contact?
Because it was warm, it was agricultural.
What happens as a result of a successful subsistence pattern?
When less time and energy is spent on food, a society becomes sophisticated; art and culture develop.
What geographic facts influence lifeways?
Precipitation, altitude/topography, vegetation.
What is the Beringian theory?
During the Pleistocene era, a land bridge existed in the Bering strait, allowing people from Asia to cross into Alaska.
How did each tribe pass down their creation stories?
What are the three types of creation myths?
1. Water/earth diver theory: culture hero reaches into water, pulls out clay and creates first human being. 2. Emergence theory: began below, came up through opening in the Earth. 3....
Which author wrote about contact with Spain, and what issues did the book address?
Alfred Crosby, "The Columbian Exchange." Discussed the ecological changes that occurred during to European contact.
What is the Doctrine of Discovery?
Spaniards would present Charters of Conquest to native people, saying that they had been conquered and now had to allow them to travel through the country as guests.
Wherever the Spanish went, what was the first order of business?
Establish colonies, recreating the world they left behind.
What author wrote about the impact of French contact upon the Native Americans?
Sylvia Van Kirk, "Many Tender Ties"
What were the original intentions of the French?
To establish a new nation for the fur trade, a mix of French sons and Native American daughters, known as metis.
Why was the French fur trade beneficial to Native American women?
Children got to remain part of the tribe, women got easier life, better commodities.
What role did Native American women play in the French fur trade?
Made moccasins and snow shoes, dress and prepare their own furs and hides to trade for themselves, taught French the Native language.
What author wrote about British contact with the Native Americans? What was the thesis of this book?
William Cronon "Changes in the Land" Thesis: Cultural and ecological history are intertwined.
What were the original intentions of the British?
What 3 points did the British and Native Americans differ on?
Boundaries, property, wealth.
What are merchantable commodities?
Items in America that could be taken back to Britain to sell.
What did the British colonists do that had a negative impact on later colonists?
Wrote letters back to England about how great the colonies were; new colonists expected wealth without labor and did not expect to have seasons of want as well as seasons of plenty.
What is Liebig's Law?
any biological population is naturally controlled by how the population can sustain itself during the leanest time of year.