MYP: Biology 9th Grade (Final Exams)


Basically Review Cards For MYP: Biology   (Ib Biology For Freshman)  My Finals Are Tomorrow And These Cards Are Basically Everything That Are Going To Be On The Test...good Luck! BTW, The Definition Opf Organelless Has Where They Are Located And If They Are In The Plant/animal Cell
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Nuclear envelope w/ pores.plant&animal nucleus
 
A double membrane that surrounds and contains nuclear material. Nuclear pores allowmaterials to leave the nucleus into the cytoplasm of the cell.
NucleolusBoth .Nucleus
 
.Made up of chromatin. It assembles ribosomes.
Chromosome/ ChromatinBoth Nucleus
 
Store genetic information (DNA). Chromatin is DNA wound around protein spools, while chromosomes are tightly coiled chromatin during cell division.
Mitochondria “Powerhouse” BothCytoplasm
 
double-membrane organelle... the site of cellular respiration in the cell. (cellular respiration breaks down glucose to release energy)
•Endoplasmic Reticulum “Internal transport system” Both .Cytoplasm
 
transports material throughout cell.ser manufactures lipids/breaks down toxic substances.RER. important making of proteins due to ribosomes.
•Golgi apparatus “Packaging Plant”
 
Both Cytoplasm.Made up of flattened membrane sacs. Modifies and packages proteins and other substance.
Chloroplast
 
Plants.Cytoplasm.(contains chlorophyll), .Site of photosynthesis in a plant cell. 1st of 3 plastids.
Amyloplast/ Leucoplast
 
Plants.Cytoplasm.2nd of 3 types of plastids found in plant cells. They store amylose (starch).
Chromoplast
 
Plants.Cytoplasm.3rd of 3 types of plastids, it stores accessory pigments in plant cells.
Vacuoles/Vesicles
 
Both .Cytoplasm.Vacuoles/vesicles are storage compartments of the cell. They can contain food, proteins, waste…etc…
Lysosomes
 
Animal.Cytoplasm.Produced by the Golgi apparatus, contain digestive enzymes used to breakdown food or worn out cell parts.
Microtubules/ Microfilaments
 
Both .Cytoplasm.Protein fibers that make up the cytoskeleton.Microtubules are hollow tubes, while microfilaments are more thread-like.
Centrioles
 
Animal.Cytoplasm.Made up of 9 groups of 3 microtubules. They produce the spindle fibers that separate chromosomes during cell division.
Cell Wall
 
Plant.Boundary.Made up of proteins and cellulose, it provides support and protection to a plant cell. It gives the cell its shape..
Plasma Membrane
 
Both.Boundary.Made up of a bilayer of phospholipids with proteins embedded. Maintains homeostasis by regulating what enters and leaves the cell.
•Cilia
 
Animal.Boundary.Short hair-like structures used for locomotion. Usually they are numerous.
•Flagella
 
Animal.Boundary.Long whip-like structures used for locomotion. 1 or 2 per cell.
Ribosomes
 
Both .Cytoplasm,Endo. Reticulum,Nuc. Envelope NOT a true organelle. lack a membrane,VERY important ,they are the site of protein synthesis.
atom
 
the smallest part of an element
molecule
 
the smallest particle of a substance which can exist in a free state
compound
 
a molecule or particle made of different elements
element
 
a type of atom, a substance which cannot be further divided by chemical methods
electron
 
1/1840.negative.electron cloud
proton
 
1.positive.nucleus
neutron
 
1.neutral.nucleus
covalent bond
 
a strong bond formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms
hydrogen bonding
 
a weak bond between hydrogen and a negative element
hydrolysis
 
the breaking of a covalent bond between two organic molecules using water
condensation
 
the formation of a strong covalent bond between two organic molecules releasing water.
Name organic compounds:
 
SPONCH elements. carbohydrates(cho)Lipids (CHOP).Proteins (CHONS).Nucleic Acids (PONCH)
Name number of electrons on each ring(level):
 
1-2,2-8,3-18,4-32
Simplest organic compound
 
methane
backbone of organic compunds:
 
Carbon
carbohydrates
 
CHO,monomer:monosaccharide(glucose),disaccharide(sucrose)...Polymer:polysaccharide(plants-cellulose,animals-glycogen,lignin-fungi)
Lipids
 
CHOP,monomer:fatty acid,glycerol,steroids(important in cell communication),waxes,cholesterol...polymer:triglycerides(fats and oils)
Proteins
 
CHONS.monomer:amino acids...polymer: polypeptides
Nulcleic acids
 
PONCH,monomer:nucleotide,atp,dna,rna...Polymer:nucleic acid, dna, rna, atp
•RNA
 
Usually single strands.Four types of nucleotides Unlike DNA, contains the base uracil in place of thymine.
DNA
 
Double-stranded .Sugar-phosphate backbone Covalent bonds in backbone.H bonds between bases
Nucleic acids functions
 
Energy carriers (ATP) Building blocks for nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
ATP
 
special type of nucleic acid.Sugar.Three phosphate groups.Adenine (a nitrogen-containing base
Nucleotide parts
 
5 carbon sugar.Nitrogen base.Phosphate group.When nucleotides combine, the polymer is still called a nucleic acid.
•Types and functions of proteins:
 
Structural(builds):Movement:Defense:Signaling:Cell recognition: Transport:
enzyme controlled reactions
 
Metabolism: controls build-up and break-down on organic macromolecules- Lowers energy required for reaction - Enzyme not changed by the reaction
protein synthesis
 
Peptide bond Covalent bonds link amino group of one amino acid with carboxyl group of next
waxes
 
Long-chain fatty acids linked to long-chain alcohols or carbon rings.Firm consistency, repel water.Important in water-proofing
sterols and derivatives
 
No fatty acids.Rigid backbone of four fused-together carbon rings.Cholesterol - most common type in animals
phospholipids
 
Main component of cell membranes. Hydrophilic head. Hydrophobic tails
fats
 
Fatty acid(s) attached to glycerol Triglycerides are most common
Lipids:extra
 
Most include fatty acids.Fats.Phospholipids.Waxes.Sterols and their derivatives have no fatty acids.Tend to be insoluble in water
Chitin
 
Polysaccharide.Nitrogen-containing groups attached to glucose monomers.Structural material for hard parts of invertebrates,
Glycogen
 
Sugar storage form in animals Large stores in muscle and liver cells
polysaccharides
 
Straight or branched chains of many sugar monomers Most common are composed entirely of glucose
disaccharide
 
Type of oligosaccharide Two monosaccharides covalently bonded
monosaccharides
 
Simplest carbohydrates Most are sweet tasting, water soluble Most have 5- or 6-carbon backbone
Cation
 
an atoms that has lost one or more electrons (positively charged)
ion
 
charged particle
Anion
 
an atoms that has gained one or more electrons (negatively charged)
water's three phases
 
liquid,vapor(gas),solid(crystal)
which model is which??* look at answer
 
which is which?
properties of water#1
 
Cohesive/adhesive.Bonds to hydrophilic substances.dissolve substances.Repels hydrophobic sub..Expands when freezes.Temperature stabilizing
properties of water#2
 
transparaency,cohesion,solvent properties
Cohesion
 
Water molecules stick to each other
Solvent properties
 
dissolve in water
more properties of water#3
 
heat capacity(water has large capacity),boiling and freezing point(relatively high/hydrogen bonds must be broken)
life must include:
 
cellular organization,respond to stimuli,growth,development,metabolism,reproduction,homeostasis,adaptation
cell theory::
 
all organisms are composed of one or more cells,cells are the basic unit of life,cells arise from existing cells
exceptions to cell theory:
 
spontaneous generation,panspermia,viruses
what does the simplest cell look like::
 
cell membrane,DNA,cytoplasm,ribosomes
Prokaryote parts:
 
cell wall,cytoplasm,pili,flagella,ribosomes
Hierarchy of life
 
atoms/biomolecules/organelles/cells/tissue/organ/organ systems/organism/population/community/ecosystem/biome/biosphere
Organelle
 
a subcellular structure that forms a specific function for the cell
differences between plant and animal cells:
 
cell wall/choloroplast/large cebtral vacuoles/centrioles
why cells are small:
 
sa:rate at which materials enter or leave a cell v:rate at which materials are used -may not be able to make materials/excrete materials
Resolution
 
the capability of distinguishing between two separate but adjacent objects;the degree of sharpness of an image
info.::Light microscopes
 
Magnifies images using light First type of microscope used and still widely used, poor resolution. (0.25 _m)
Advantages of light microscopes
 
Samples easily prepared.Samples examined while alive.Movement observed.Color.Field of view=relatively large.Inexpensive
info.::Electron microscope
 
Magnifies images using electrons Better resolution than light microscope. (0.25 nm)
Disadvantages of electron microscope
 
Preparation difficult, time consuming(toxic chemicals).Samples are killed in preparation.No movement.Monochrome.Small field of view.expensive
scientists: cell theory
 
theodor schwann/matthias schleiden/rudolf virchow
Concentration Gradient
 
the number of molecules or ions in one region is different than the number in another region
Diffusion
 
The net movement of like molecules or ions down a concentration gradient
factors affecting diffusion rate:
 
Steepness of concentration gradient(Steep gradient)Molecular size(Small mol. )Temp.(High temp.)Electrical/pressure gradients
Osmosis
 
The diffusion of water across a membrane
Lipid bilayer
 
Main component of cell membranes/Gives membrane its fluid properties/Fatty acid tails sandwiched between hydrophilic heads
Fluid Mosaic Model
 
Membrane is a mosaic of:Phospholipids/Glycolipids/Sterols (cholesterols)/Proteins
Passive Transport
 
Uses the energy of the system (no ATP)/Moves with the concentration gradient/Diffusion Fascillitated diffusion/Osmosis
Active Transport
 
Uses cellular (ATP) energy/Can move against the concentration gradient/large substances through the membrane/Active protein transport/
Label
 
Image attached
Ionic Bond
 
nonmetal+metal
Covalent Bond
 
nonmetal+nonmetal
just review over this
 
review
info.:Water
 
*polar molecule (uneven distribution of +/ - charges) *excellent dissolving power, universal solvent due to it’s polarity *hydrogen bonding
Acids
 
* release "H" ion * pH range from 0-7 * sour taste
Bases
 
* release "OH" ion * "accepts" H ion from acid. * pH range from 7-14 * bitter taste & slippery
Salts
 
* product of neutralization reaction * ionically bonded, metal & non-metal
pH of common life substances:
 
pure water:7 lemon juice:2.3 baking soda:9
macromolecules:
 
SPONCH elements
Substrate:
 
compound altered by enzyme
All organic compounds::
 
Made by living things..essential for life/Have a carbon"C"backbone/Created by condensation reaction(dehydration synthesis)/Hydrolosis-break
facilitated diffusion
 
type of passive transport/moves substances down their gradient without using cell's energy
What kind of carrier transport speeds up diffusion?
 
carrier proteins
sodium-potassium pump
 
three sodium ions out of cell/two potassium ions in
ion channel
 
transport protein with polar pore through which ions can pass
STM(scanning)
 
uses computer to make a 3-d image
which system do scientists use to measure?
 
metric
proteins in cell membranes include::
 
enzymes,receptor proteins,transport proteins, and cell-surface markers
hydrogen bonding..
 
is a weak bond and occurs between polar molecules
All matter is made ...
 
of atoms
activation energy
 
the energy needed to start a chemical reaction
theory
 
a set of related hypothesis that have been tested and approved by many scientists
prediction
 
expected outcome of a test
hypothesis
 
en explanation that might be true
observation
 
the act of noting/perceiving objects or events with the senses
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