MYP: Biology 9th Grade (Final Exams)

114 cards

Basically review cards for MYP: biology   (Ib biology for freshman)  My finals are tomorrow and these cards are basically everything that are going to be on the test...good luck! BTW, the definition opf organelless has where they are located and if they are in the plant/animal cell


 
  
Created Dec 15, 2008
by
wickedlyib

 

 
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1
Nuclear envelope w/ pores.plant&animal nucleus
 
A double membrane that surrounds and contains nuclear material. Nuclear pores allowmaterials...
2
NucleolusBoth .Nucleus
 
.Made up of chromatin. It assembles ribosomes.
3
Chromosome/ ChromatinBoth Nucleus
 
Store genetic information (DNA). Chromatin is DNA wound around protein spools, while chromosomes...
4
Mitochondria “Powerhouse” BothCytoplasm
 
double-membrane organelle... the site of cellular respiration in the cell. (cellular respiration...
5
•Endoplasmic Reticulum “Internal transport system” Both .Cytoplasm
 
transports material throughout cell.ser manufactures lipids/breaks down toxic substances.RER....
6
•Golgi apparatus “Packaging Plant”
 
Both Cytoplasm.Made up of flattened membrane sacs. Modifies and packages proteins and other...
7
Chloroplast
 
Plants.Cytoplasm.(contains chlorophyll), .Site of photosynthesis in a plant cell. 1st of 3...
8
Amyloplast/ Leucoplast
 
Plants.Cytoplasm.2nd of 3 types of plastids found in plant cells. They store amylose (starch)....
9
Chromoplast
 
Plants.Cytoplasm.3rd of 3 types of plastids, it stores accessory pigments in plant cells.
10
Vacuoles/Vesicles
 
Both .Cytoplasm.Vacuoles/vesicles are storage compartments of the cell. They can contain food,...
11
Lysosomes
 
Animal.Cytoplasm.Produced by the Golgi apparatus, contain digestive enzymes used to breakdown...
12
Microtubules/ Microfilaments
 
Both .Cytoplasm.Protein fibers that make up the cytoskeleton.Microtubules are hollow tubes,...
13
Centrioles
 
Animal.Cytoplasm.Made up of 9 groups of 3 microtubules. They produce the spindle fibers that...
14
Cell Wall
 
Plant.Boundary.Made up of proteins and cellulose, it provides support and protection to a plant...
15
Plasma Membrane
 
Both.Boundary.Made up of a bilayer of phospholipids with proteins embedded. Maintains homeostasis...
16
•Cilia
 
Animal.Boundary.Short hair-like structures used for locomotion. Usually they are numerous....
17
•Flagella
 
Animal.Boundary.Long whip-like structures used for locomotion. 1 or 2 per cell.
18
Ribosomes
 
Both .Cytoplasm,Endo. Reticulum,Nuc. Envelope NOT a true organelle. lack a membrane,VERY important...
19
atom
 
the smallest part of an element
20
molecule
 
the smallest particle of a substance which can exist in a free state
21
compound
 
a molecule or particle made of different elements
22
element
 
a type of atom, a substance which cannot be further divided by chemical methods
23
electron
 
1/1840.negative.electron cloud
24
proton
 
1.positive.nucleus
25
neutron
 
1.neutral.nucleus
26
covalent bond
 
a strong bond formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms
27
hydrogen bonding
 
a weak bond between hydrogen and a negative element
28
hydrolysis
 
the breaking of a covalent bond between two organic molecules using water
29
condensation
 
the formation of a strong covalent bond between two organic molecules releasing water.
30
Name organic compounds:
 
SPONCH elements. carbohydrates(cho)Lipids (CHOP).Proteins (CHONS).Nucleic Acids (PONCH)
31
Name number of electrons on each ring(level):
 
1-2,2-8,3-18,4-32
32
Simplest organic compound
 
methane
33
backbone of organic compunds:
 
Carbon
34
carbohydrates
 
CHO,monomer:monosaccharide(glucose),disaccharide(sucrose)...Polymer:polysaccharide(plants-cellulose,animals-glycogen,lignin-fungi)
35
Lipids
 
CHOP,monomer:fatty acid,glycerol,steroids(important in cell communication),waxes,cholesterol...polymer:triglycerides(fats...
36
Proteins
 
CHONS.monomer:amino acids...polymer: polypeptides
37
Nulcleic acids
 
PONCH,monomer:nucleotide,atp,dna,rna...Polymer:nucleic acid, dna, rna, atp
38
•RNA
 
Usually single strands.Four types of nucleotides Unlike DNA, contains the base uracil in place...
39
DNA
 
Double-stranded .Sugar-phosphate backbone Covalent bonds in backbone.H bonds between bases
40
Nucleic acids functions
 
Energy carriers (ATP) Building blocks for nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
41
ATP
 
special type of nucleic acid.Sugar.Three phosphate groups.Adenine (a nitrogen-containing base...
42
Nucleotide parts
 
5 carbon sugar.Nitrogen base.Phosphate group.When nucleotides combine, the polymer is still...
43
•Types and functions of proteins:
 
Structural(builds):Movement:Defense:Signaling:Cell recognition: Transport:
44
enzyme controlled reactions
 
Metabolism: controls build-up and break-down on organic macromolecules- Lowers energy required...
45
protein synthesis
 
Peptide bond Covalent bonds link amino group of one amino acid with carboxyl group of next
46
waxes
 
Long-chain fatty acids linked to long-chain alcohols or carbon rings.Firm consistency, repel...
47
sterols and derivatives
 
No fatty acids.Rigid backbone of four fused-together carbon rings.Cholesterol - most common...
48
phospholipids
 
Main component of cell membranes. Hydrophilic head. Hydrophobic tails
49
fats
 
Fatty acid(s) attached to glycerol Triglycerides are most common
50
Lipids:extra
 
Most include fatty acids.Fats.Phospholipids.Waxes.Sterols and their derivatives have no fatty...
51
Chitin
 
Polysaccharide.Nitrogen-containing groups attached to glucose monomers.Structural material...
52
Glycogen
 
Sugar storage form in animals Large stores in muscle and liver cells
53
polysaccharides
 
Straight or branched chains of many sugar monomers Most common are composed entirely of glucose
54
disaccharide
 
Type of oligosaccharide Two monosaccharides covalently bonded
55
monosaccharides
 
Simplest carbohydrates Most are sweet tasting, water soluble Most have 5- or 6-carbon backbone
56
Cation
 
an atoms that has lost one or more electrons (positively charged)
57
ion
 
charged particle
58
Anion
 
an atoms that has gained one or more electrons (negatively charged)
59
water's three phases
 
liquid,vapor(gas),solid(crystal)
60
which model is which??* look at answer
 
which is which?
61
properties of water#1
 
Cohesive/adhesive.Bonds to hydrophilic substances.dissolve substances.Repels hydrophobic sub..Expands...
62
properties of water#2
 
transparaency,cohesion,solvent properties
63
Cohesion
 
Water molecules stick to each other
64
Solvent properties
 
dissolve in water
65
more properties of water#3
 
heat capacity(water has large capacity),boiling and freezing point(relatively high/hydrogen...
66
life must include:
 
cellular organization,respond to stimuli,growth,development,metabolism,reproduction,homeostasis,adaptation
67
cell theory::
 
all organisms are composed of one or more cells,cells are the basic unit of life,cells arise...
68
exceptions to cell theory:
 
spontaneous generation,panspermia,viruses
69
what does the simplest cell look like::
 
cell membrane,DNA,cytoplasm,ribosomes
70
Prokaryote parts:
 
cell wall,cytoplasm,pili,flagella,ribosomes
71
Hierarchy of life
 
atoms/biomolecules/organelles/cells/tissue/organ/organ systems/organism/population/community/ecosystem/biome/biosphere
72
Organelle
 
a subcellular structure that forms a specific function for the cell
73
differences between plant and animal cells:
 
cell wall/choloroplast/large cebtral vacuoles/centrioles
74
why cells are small:
 
sa:rate at which materials enter or leave a cell v:rate at which materials are used -may...
75
Resolution
 
the capability of distinguishing between two separate but adjacent objects;the degree of sharpness...
76
info.::Light microscopes
 
Magnifies images using light First type of microscope used and still widely used, poor resolution....
77
Advantages of light microscopes
 
Samples easily prepared.Samples examined while alive.Movement observed.Color.Field of view=relatively...
78
info.::Electron microscope
 
Magnifies images using electrons Better resolution than light microscope. (0.25 nm)
79
Disadvantages of electron microscope
 
Preparation difficult, time consuming(toxic chemicals).Samples are killed in preparation.No...
80
scientists: cell theory
 
theodor schwann/matthias schleiden/rudolf virchow
81
Concentration Gradient
 
the number of molecules or ions in one region is different than the number in another region
82
Diffusion
 
The net movement of like molecules or ions down a concentration gradient
83
factors affecting diffusion rate:
 
Steepness of concentration gradient(Steep gradient)Molecular size(Small mol. )Temp.(High temp.)Electrical/pressure...
84
Osmosis
 
The diffusion of water across a membrane
85
Lipid bilayer
 
Main component of cell membranes/Gives membrane its fluid properties/Fatty acid tails sandwiched...
86
Fluid Mosaic Model
 
Membrane is a mosaic of:Phospholipids/Glycolipids/Sterols (cholesterols)/Proteins
87
Passive Transport
 
Uses the energy of the system (no ATP)/Moves with the concentration gradient/Diffusion Fascillitated...
88
Active Transport
 
Uses cellular (ATP) energy/Can move against the concentration gradient/large substances through...
89
Label
 
Image attached
90
Ionic Bond
 
nonmetal+metal
91
Covalent Bond
 
nonmetal+nonmetal
92
just review over this
 
review
93
info.:Water
 
*polar molecule (uneven distribution of +/ - charges) *excellent dissolving power, universal...
94
Acids
 
* release "H" ion * pH range from 0-7 * sour taste
95
Bases
 
* release "OH" ion * "accepts" H ion from acid. * pH range from 7-14 * bitter taste...
96
Salts
 
* product of neutralization reaction * ionically bonded, metal & non-metal
97
pH of common life substances:
 
pure water:7 lemon juice:2.3 baking soda:9
98
macromolecules:
 
SPONCH elements
99
Substrate:
 
compound altered by enzyme
100
All organic compounds::
 
Made by living things..essential for life/Have a carbon"C"backbone/Created by condensation...
101
facilitated diffusion
 
type of passive transport/moves substances down their gradient without using cell's energy
102
What kind of carrier transport speeds up diffusion?
 
carrier proteins
103
sodium-potassium pump
 
three sodium ions out of cell/two potassium ions in
104
ion channel
 
transport protein with polar pore through which ions can pass
105
STM(scanning)
 
uses computer to make a 3-d image
106
which system do scientists use to measure?
 
metric
107
proteins in cell membranes include::
 
enzymes,receptor proteins,transport proteins, and cell-surface markers
108
hydrogen bonding..
 
is a weak bond and occurs between polar molecules
109
All matter is made ...
 
of atoms
110
activation energy
 
the energy needed to start a chemical reaction
111
theory
 
a set of related hypothesis that have been tested and approved by many scientists
112
prediction
 
expected outcome of a test
113
hypothesis
 
en explanation that might be true
114
observation
 
the act of noting/perceiving objects or events with the senses

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