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Nuclear envelope w/ pores.plant&animal nucleus
A double membrane that surrounds and contains nuclear material. Nuclear pores allowmaterials to leave the nucleus into the cytoplasm of the cell.
.Made up of chromatin. It assembles ribosomes.
Chromosome/ ChromatinBoth Nucleus
Store genetic information (DNA). Chromatin is DNA wound around protein spools, while chromosomes are tightly coiled chromatin during cell division.
Mitochondria “Powerhouse” BothCytoplasm
double-membrane organelle... the site of cellular respiration in the cell. (cellular respiration breaks down glucose to release energy)
•Endoplasmic Reticulum “Internal transport system” Both .Cytoplasm
transports material throughout cell.ser manufactures lipids/breaks down toxic substances.RER. important making of proteins due to ribosomes.
•Golgi apparatus “Packaging Plant”
Both Cytoplasm.Made up of flattened membrane sacs. Modifies and packages proteins and other substance.
Plants.Cytoplasm.(contains chlorophyll), .Site of photosynthesis in a plant cell. 1st of 3 plastids.
Plants.Cytoplasm.2nd of 3 types of plastids found in plant cells. They store amylose (starch).
Plants.Cytoplasm.3rd of 3 types of plastids, it stores accessory pigments in plant cells.
Both .Cytoplasm.Vacuoles/vesicles are storage compartments of the cell. They can contain food, proteins, waste…etc…
Animal.Cytoplasm.Produced by the Golgi apparatus, contain digestive enzymes used to breakdown food or worn out cell parts.
Both .Cytoplasm.Protein fibers that make up the cytoskeleton.Microtubules are hollow tubes, while microfilaments are more thread-like.
Animal.Cytoplasm.Made up of 9 groups of 3 microtubules. They produce the spindle fibers that separate chromosomes during cell division.
Plant.Boundary.Made up of proteins and cellulose, it provides support and protection to a plant cell. It gives the cell its shape..
Both.Boundary.Made up of a bilayer of phospholipids with proteins embedded. Maintains homeostasis by regulating what enters and leaves the cell.
Animal.Boundary.Short hair-like structures used for locomotion. Usually they are numerous.
Animal.Boundary.Long whip-like structures used for locomotion. 1 or 2 per cell.
Both .Cytoplasm,Endo. Reticulum,Nuc. Envelope NOT a true organelle. lack a membrane,VERY important ,they are the site of protein synthesis.
the smallest part of an element
the smallest particle of a substance which can exist in a free state
a molecule or particle made of different elements
a type of atom, a substance which cannot be further divided by chemical methods
a strong bond formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms
a weak bond between hydrogen and a negative element
the breaking of a covalent bond between two organic molecules using water
the formation of a strong covalent bond between two organic molecules releasing water.
Name organic compounds:
SPONCH elements. carbohydrates(cho)Lipids (CHOP).Proteins (CHONS).Nucleic Acids (PONCH)
Name number of electrons on each ring(level):
Simplest organic compound
backbone of organic compunds:
CHOP,monomer:fatty acid,glycerol,steroids(important in cell communication),waxes,cholesterol...polymer:triglycerides(fats and oils)
CHONS.monomer:amino acids...polymer: polypeptides
PONCH,monomer:nucleotide,atp,dna,rna...Polymer:nucleic acid, dna, rna, atp
Usually single strands.Four types of nucleotides Unlike DNA, contains the base uracil in place of thymine.
Double-stranded .Sugar-phosphate backbone Covalent bonds in backbone.H bonds between bases
Nucleic acids functions
Energy carriers (ATP) Building blocks for nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
special type of nucleic acid.Sugar.Three phosphate groups.Adenine (a nitrogen-containing base
5 carbon sugar.Nitrogen base.Phosphate group.When nucleotides combine, the polymer is still called a nucleic acid.
•Types and functions of proteins:
Structural(builds):Movement:Defense:Signaling:Cell recognition: Transport:
enzyme controlled reactions
Metabolism: controls build-up and break-down on organic macromolecules- Lowers energy required for reaction - Enzyme not changed by the reaction
Peptide bond Covalent bonds link amino group of one amino acid with carboxyl group of next
Long-chain fatty acids linked to long-chain alcohols or carbon rings.Firm consistency, repel water.Important in water-proofing
sterols and derivatives
No fatty acids.Rigid backbone of four fused-together carbon rings.Cholesterol - most common type in animals
Main component of cell membranes. Hydrophilic head. Hydrophobic tails
Fatty acid(s) attached to glycerol Triglycerides are most common
Most include fatty acids.Fats.Phospholipids.Waxes.Sterols and their derivatives have no fatty acids.Tend to be insoluble in water
Polysaccharide.Nitrogen-containing groups attached to glucose monomers.Structural material for hard parts of invertebrates,
Sugar storage form in animals Large stores in muscle and liver cells
Straight or branched chains of many sugar monomers Most common are composed entirely of glucose
Type of oligosaccharide Two monosaccharides covalently bonded
Simplest carbohydrates Most are sweet tasting, water soluble Most have 5- or 6-carbon backbone
an atoms that has lost one or more electrons (positively charged)
an atoms that has gained one or more electrons (negatively charged)
water's three phases
which model is which??* look at answer
which is which?
properties of water#1
Cohesive/adhesive.Bonds to hydrophilic substances.dissolve substances.Repels hydrophobic sub..Expands when freezes.Temperature stabilizing
properties of water#2
Water molecules stick to each other
dissolve in water
more properties of water#3
heat capacity(water has large capacity),boiling and freezing point(relatively high/hydrogen bonds must be broken)
life must include:
cellular organization,respond to stimuli,growth,development,metabolism,reproduction,homeostasis,adaptation
all organisms are composed of one or more cells,cells are the basic unit of life,cells arise from existing cells
exceptions to cell theory:
what does the simplest cell look like::
Hierarchy of life
a subcellular structure that forms a specific function for the cell
differences between plant and animal cells:
cell wall/choloroplast/large cebtral vacuoles/centrioles
why cells are small:
sa:rate at which materials enter or leave a cell v:rate at which materials are used -may not be able to make materials/excrete materials
the capability of distinguishing between two separate but adjacent objects;the degree of sharpness of an image
Magnifies images using light First type of microscope used and still widely used, poor resolution. (0.25 _m)
Advantages of light microscopes
Samples easily prepared.Samples examined while alive.Movement observed.Color.Field of view=relatively large.Inexpensive
Magnifies images using electrons Better resolution than light microscope. (0.25 nm)
Disadvantages of electron microscope
Preparation difficult, time consuming(toxic chemicals).Samples are killed in preparation.No movement.Monochrome.Small field of view.expensive
scientists: cell theory
theodor schwann/matthias schleiden/rudolf virchow
the number of molecules or ions in one region is different than the number in another region
The net movement of like molecules or ions down a concentration gradient
factors affecting diffusion rate:
Steepness of concentration gradient(Steep gradient)Molecular size(Small mol. )Temp.(High temp.)Electrical/pressure gradients
The diffusion of water across a membrane
Main component of cell membranes/Gives membrane its fluid properties/Fatty acid tails sandwiched between hydrophilic heads
Fluid Mosaic Model
Membrane is a mosaic of:Phospholipids/Glycolipids/Sterols (cholesterols)/Proteins
Uses the energy of the system (no ATP)/Moves with the concentration gradient/Diffusion Fascillitated diffusion/Osmosis
Uses cellular (ATP) energy/Can move against the concentration gradient/large substances through the membrane/Active protein transport/
just review over this
*polar molecule (uneven distribution of +/ - charges) *excellent dissolving power, universal solvent due to it’s polarity *hydrogen bonding
* release "H" ion * pH range from 0-7 * sour taste
* release "OH" ion * "accepts" H ion from acid. * pH range from 7-14 * bitter taste & slippery
* product of neutralization reaction * ionically bonded, metal & non-metal
pH of common life substances:
pure water:7 lemon juice:2.3 baking soda:9
compound altered by enzyme
All organic compounds::
Made by living things..essential for life/Have a carbon"C"backbone/Created by condensation reaction(dehydration synthesis)/Hydrolosis-break
type of passive transport/moves substances down their gradient without using cell's energy
What kind of carrier transport speeds up diffusion?
three sodium ions out of cell/two potassium ions in
transport protein with polar pore through which ions can pass
uses computer to make a 3-d image
which system do scientists use to measure?
proteins in cell membranes include::
enzymes,receptor proteins,transport proteins, and cell-surface markers
is a weak bond and occurs between polar molecules
All matter is made ...
the energy needed to start a chemical reaction
a set of related hypothesis that have been tested and approved by many scientists
expected outcome of a test
en explanation that might be true
the act of noting/perceiving objects or events with the senses