Music Gcse

230 cards

music gcse. helpful words.


 
  
Created Apr 4, 2012
by
ellenlloyd

 

 
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1
accent
 
emphasis on a note or chord
2
acciaccatura
 
a very short ornamental note played just before the principle melodic note 
3
added- note chord
 
a chord which includes one or more non-standard notes. like 2nd or 6th above the root
4
anacrusis
 
an upbeat , an accented note or group of notes that come before the strong beat of a phrase
5
atonal music
 
music that avoids keys or modes i.e- no one pitch stands our in the way the tonic does in tonal...
6
balfon
 
an instrument from west Africa, similar to a xylophone 
7
balenced phrase
 
phrases of the same length paired together so that the first one sounds like a question and...
8
bass ( voice)
 
a low male voice 
9
bass ( line)
 
the lowest pitched line in a piece of music 
10
blues note
 
a note performed at a slightly lower pitch than normal  
11
blues
 
a style of music created by an African american community during the early 20th century 
12
break
 
in jazz and pop music, a short instrumental solo
13
bridge
 
in jazz and pop, a contrasting passage that connects two longer sections together.
14
broken chord
 
a chord in which notes are played one after another instead of at the same time
15
call and response 
 
the second phrase is heard as  reply to the first one 
16
chorus ( structure)
 
the repeated phrase in a verse - chorus structure 
17
chorus ( choir)
 
a movement for a whole choir in a large scale choral work 
18
chorus ( blues)
 
one statement of the 12 bar blues progression 
19
cirlce of 5ths
 
a harmonic progression in which the root of each of each succeeding chord is a 5th lower than...
20
clef 
 
a symbol placed at the beginning of a line of music that defines what the pitches of the notes...
21
coda
 
a section of music that ends the piece 
22
compound time
 
a metre in which  the main beat is sub-divided into into three equal portions  
23
conjunct 
 
a conjunct melody moves by steps rather than by larger intervals 
24
consonance
 
notes that are consonant sound pleasing when played  together 
25
continuo 
 
an accompanying part in instrumental music of the baroque period. The continuo is...
26
contrapuntal 
 
adjective to describe music that uses the counterpoint 
27
counter melody 
 
a second melody in a piece that is heard at the same time as the main melody, to provide contrast 
28
counterpoint 
 
a texture in which two or more melodic lines, each one significant in itself , are played together...
29
cresendo
 
a gradual increase in dynamics 
30
cross rhythm 
 
the presence in a passage of music of conflicting rhythms 
31
delay 
 
an audio effect that can be electronically added to give the effect of an echo
32
dialogue 
 
when two or more instruments or voices have a musical conversation  
33
diminuendo
 
a gradual decrease in dynamics
34
disjunct 
 
moves by leaps or intervals larger than a 2nd 
35
dissonance 
 
notes that are dissonant produce a clashing sound when played together 
36
distortion 
 
a digital effect effect that alters the sound of an instrument so that it becomes rougher and...
37
dominant 
 
the fifth note in a scale 
38
Dorian mode 
 
tone,semi-tone,tone,tone,tone,semi-tone,tone
39
dotted rhythm
 
a rhythm that contain pairs of notes in the pattern long, short 
40
doubling 
 
a note or passage in one part that is played by another part at the same time .
41
drum machine 
 
an electronic device that replicates the sounds of various percussion instruments.
42
en harmonic 
 
the same pitch notated in two different ways 
43
EQ
 
short for equalization. process of adjusting the relative levels  of...
44
Falcetto
 
a voice technique used by men to sing notes higher than their normal range 
45
fill
 
a short passage of music between two two sections of music 
46
flanging 
 
a digital effect that combines two copies of the same signal, with the second delayed slightly...
47
free tempo
 
describes music without a regular pulse 
48
harmonic rhythm 
 
how often the harmony changes in a passage of music 
49
hemiola
 
a rhythmic device in which two bars of 3-4 sounds like three bars of 2-4 
50
hexachord 
 
a chord made up of 6 notes
51
imperfect cadence 
 
a cadence consisting of any chord - usually 1,2 or 4 followed by 5 
52
instrumentation 
 
the choice of instruments in a piece 
53
interval 
 
the distance between two notes 
54
inversion
 
when a melody is inverted, the intervals between the notes are turned upside down 
55
lament
 
a poem or piece that expresses grief 
56
layered 
 
 a texture made up of independent lines which are designed to fit in together 
57
melisma
 
one syllable played over several notes 
58
mixolydian  mode 
 
a scale that uses tone, tone, semi-tone, tone ,tone, semi-tone, tone
59
mode
 
different types of seven note scales, other than major and minor 
60
overdubbing 
 
recording a new part over the top of existing material 
61
panning 
 
used in stereo recordings to control where the sound is coming from.
62
parallel motion
 
movement of two or more parts in the same direction, with the interval between between them...
63
perfect cadence 
 
a cadence consisting of the dominant  followed by the tonic
64
pentantonic scale 
 
a scale made up of five notes
65
pitch bend 
 
a short slide up or down to a main note 
66
plagal cadence 
 
a cadence consisting of the sub dominant chord followed by the tonic 
67
prelude 
 
a short piece of music that often acts as an introduction to a longer work 
68
pulse 
 
a regularly occurring sence of beat  
69
register 
 
a part of the range of and instrument or voice 
70
reverb 
 
an effect used to alter music so that it sounds as if it was recorded in an echoey space 
71
riff
 
a short catchy melody that is repeated through out a jazz or pop song
72
rondo 
 
a musical structure in which a main melody alternates with contrasting sections (ABACADA)
73
sample
 
a short section from a recorded track that can be digitally manipulated and altered for insertion...
74
sequence 
 
immediate repetition of an idea at a different pitch  
75
serial
 
atonal music  that uses a predetermined series of 12 chromatic notes to guarantee  equality...
76
seventh chord
 
a chord made up of a triad and a not a 7th above the root 
77
soprano 
 
high female voice 
78
swung rhythm
 
in jazz and blues a relaxing of strict quaver rhythm 
79
syllabic
 
vocal music that has one note to each syllable 
80
symphony 
 
a type of composition for an orchestra usually in four parts 
81
synthesizer 
 
an electronic device with a key board that allows the player to add digital effects and manipulate...
82
ternary form 
 
the form ABA
83
tibre 
 
the elements of music concerned with the actual sound quality or tone colour of the music
84
tonality 
 
the use of major and minor keys in music 
85
tremolo 
 
a musical effect that refers to a very quick and continuous repetition of a single...
86
unison 
 
simultaneous performance of the same pitch by more than one person 
87
virtuoso
 
a highly skilled singer capable of performing difficult music   
88
word painting 
 
the use of musical devices and features to illustrate and highlight specific words in...
89
key feature of western classical music 
 
simple harmoniessame mood through out the piecechange in dynamics are suddenlots of ornamentationcomplex...
90
when was and the glory of the lord composed ?
 
1741
91
instrumentation in and the glory of the lord  
 
choir made up of sopranos, altos, tenors and bass' accompanied by strings and...
92
structure in and the glory of the lord 
 
orchestral introduction- shorted versions of this is repeated laterno set form -...
93
motif 1 in and the glory of the lord
 
first sung by the altos starting in bar 11 its clearly in A major 
94
motif 2 in ' and the glory of the lord ' 
 
first sung by the tenors starting in bar 17. it uses a descending sequence and melisma...
95
motif 3 in' and the glory of the lord'
 
first sung by the altos, starting in bar 43. short descending figure form A to E 
96
motif 4 in ' and the glory of the lord 
 
first sung by the tenors and basses starting in bar 51 . most of it is on the same pitch and...
97
the metre of and the glory of the lord 
 
this piece is in the dance like tempo 3-4 
98
the tempo of ' and the glory of the lord'
 
it maintains a fast tempo almost until the end when there is a bar of total silence and then...
99
the rhythm of and the glory of the lord 
 
there are a lot of hemiolas in the piece such as at bar 9-10
100
the composer of ' and the glory of the lord 
 
handel
101
the tonality of ' and the glory of the lord 
 
the piece is in A major it modulates to two related keys. the dominant; E major and...
102
the harmony of and the glory of the lord 
 
its diatonic 
103
the texture of ' and the glory of the lord 
 
the piece alternates between homophonic and contrapuntal passages. there is...
104
the number of parts in ' and the glory of the lord 
 
the number of parts in and the gory of the lord varies sometimes there is one such as the altos...
105
the word settings in ' and the glory of the lord' 
 
there is a mixture of syllabic and melismatic word settings. 'for the mouth of the lord hath...
106
what country was 'and the glory of the lord ' composed in ?
 
England 
107
key features of classical music
 
balanced and clear phrases that form questions and answersmore contrasts within a movement changes...
108
who composed symphony no.40 in G minor 
 
mozart
109
when was symphony number 40 composed
 
1788
110
tonality of symphony number 40
 
the movement is in sonata form in the key of G minor 
111
the exposition in symphony no. 40  
 
first subject ; a melody that is a falling motif played by strings G minorsecond subject: a...
112
the development in symphony no.40
 
based on the first subject which is developed and fragmented  moves through various keys...
113
the recapitulation in symphony no.40
 
first subject; repeated with some variation G minor second subject : repeated with some...
114
the structure of symphony number 40
 
exposition( first subject, second subject), development, recapitulation ( first subject, second...
115
melody in symphony no.40
 
made up of balanced, four or eight bar phrases- sounds like question and answer (for example...
116
the harmony in symphony no.40
 
diatonic and functional- bases around major and minor triads chromatic chords such as...
117
rhythm of symphony number 40
 
rhythm fairly simple, although there are some dotted rhythms and syncopation to add...
118
the metre of symphony no.40
 
the metre is 4-4 throughout 
119
the tempo of symphony no.40
 
the tempo is ' molto alegro' - very fast 
120
the texture of symphony no.40
 
the texture is mostly harmonic but there is counter point and imitation , octave...
121
the dynamics in symphony no.40
 
exposition; first subject is quiet, transition is loud, second subject gets louder development...
122
use of instruments in symphony no.40
 
strings; busy, play melody and quick running scaleswoodwind; play sustained notes and some...
123
key features of romantic music 
 
expressive and emotionalrich chromatic harmonies- use of dissonance and modulation to...
124
when was prelude no.15 in D flat composed
 
1839
125
who composed prelude no.15 in D flat
 
Chopin
126
what is the nickname of prelude no.15 in D flat 
 
the raindrop prelude
127
the structure of prelude no.15 in D flat 
 
ternary form (ABA)A;accompanied by quavers in the bass, has an ABA structureB;melody in bass,...
128
rhythm in prelude no.15 in D flat
 
bar 4+23 sectuplets, bar 79 dectuplets- unusualrepeated quavers- (reason its called the raindrop...
129
metre of prelude no.15 in D flat 
 
common time  (4-4)
130
Tempo of prelude no.15 in D flat
 
legato, unhurried manner flexible tempo
131
melody of prelude no.15 in D flat 
 
starts in the left hand- very decorative section B moves to the bass - narrower range,...
132
tonality of prelude no.15 in D flat
 
modulates from the tonic major in section A  to the enharmonic tonic minor in section...
133
harmony in prelude no.15 in D flat
 
the harmony is diatonic sometimes it uses chromaticism 
134
texture of prelude no.15 in D flat 
 
apart from two monophonic bars near the end  the piece is homophonic
135
dynamics in prelude no.15 in D flat 
 
lots of crescendos and diminuendos wide range of dynamics no sudden contrast...
136
use of the piano in prelude no.15 in D flat 
 
uses middle and lower piano rangesconcentrates on pianos ability to ' sing'lots of sustaining...
137
who composed the peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
 
Schoenberg 
138
when was  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces composed
 
1909
139
the instrumentation in  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
 
requires a large orchestra of at least 90 players changes quickly- creating contrast in...
140
melody of  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
 
made up of short fragmented motifs melodies are disjunct- uses octave displacement uses...
141
rhythm of  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
 
complex and varied- change quickly 
142
tempo of  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
 
the tempo is very quick
143
metre of  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
 
changes between 2-4,3-4 and 4-4
144
tonality of  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
 
Atonal
145
harmony of  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
 
chords and melodies build of hexachords dissonant harmony 
146
Texture of  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
 
contrapuntal- sometimes homophonic and monophoniccomplex textures build up through intimation and...
147
dynamics in  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
 
sudden changes and extreme contrast 
148
structure of  peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces 
 
piece in free rondo form ( ABACA)
149
who composed somethings coming ?
 
Bernstein 
150
when was  somethings coming composed ? 
 
1957
151
what genre is  somethings coming from ? 
 
Musicals
152
instrumentation in  somethings coming
 
for solo tenor accompanied by wind,brass,strings and percussion strings use harmonics...
153
melody  in  somethings coming
 
melody is syllabic and based on three themes1. quiet syncopated opening 2, loud,strident...
154
rhythm in  somethings coming
 
lots of cross rhythms 
155
tempo of  somethings coming
 
fast tempo
156
metre of  somethings coming
 
changes between 2-4 and 3-4
157
harmony of  somethings coming
 
in D major, there are two sections in C majortonal and jazzy, frequent 7th chords and added...
158
texture of somethings coming 
 
homophonic- three main ideas1. repeated riffs2. syncopated chordsfast um-cha accompaniment 
159
what style is electric counterpoint ( third movement) in 
 
minimalism
160
who composed   electric counterpoint ( third movement)
 
Steve Reich
161
when was electric counterpoint ( third movement) composed 
 
1987
162
instrumentation of   electric counterpoint ( third movement)  
 
for live guitars accompanied by seven guitars and two basseslive guitar is amplified  
163
structure in   electric counterpoint ( third movement)
 
three layers 1. syncopated quaver motif2.different syncopated quaver motif3.more...
164
melody in   electric counterpoint ( third movement)
 
made up of a one bar motif, repeated to form an ostinatothere is a canonbuild up melody...
165
rhythm in electric counterpoint ( third movement)
 
little rhythmic variety- only repeated patterns and quaversfrequent syncopationuses...
166
metre in electric counterpoint ( third movement)
 
3-2towards the end some parts changes to 12-8 others stay the same - polymetre
167
harmony in electric counterpoint ( third movement)
 
harmonic progressions aren't used - final chord made up of only two notes (B,E) - not a complete...
168
tonality in electric counterpoint ( third movement)
 
largely in key of major - short section in E flat major
entirely diatonic  
169
dynamics in electric counterpoint ( third movement)
 
fairly constant throughout parts fade out gradually in places
170
tempo of   electric counterpoint ( third movement)
 
192 crotchets per minute - very fast 
171
when was All blues  composed 
 
1959
172
who composed  All blues 
 
miles Davis
173
what type of band is on the album playing  All blues 
 
sextet
174
what is the front line 
 
consists of the instruments playing the main melody
175
what is the rhythm section 
 
the rhythm section is the section that provides the harmonic and rhythmic backing
176
what miles davis gave the ban before recording 
 
no score only :overall structure, basic chord sequence,main melodic idea, the scale 
177
structure in  All blues 
 
introduction- rhythmic sectionHead1- head melody, riffsolos-trumpet,alto sax, tenor sax, pianohead...
178
melody in  All blues 
 
head melody simple- rising 6ths trumpet solo- short syncopated motifs alto...
179
harmony in All blues 
 
scale;g7,G7,G7,G7,Gm7,Gm7,G7,G7,D7,E flat/D7,F/G,F/G6a chord sequence is known as the changesall...
180
tonality in  All blues 
 
Mixolydian Mode- modal jazz
181
metre in  All blues 
 
6-4 
182
tempo in  All blues 
 
jazz waltz because 6-4 sounds like 3-4
183
rhythm in  All blues 
 
swung quavers and syncopation 
184
instrumental technique in   All blues 
 
snare drum played with wire brush at the startbass play pizzicato throughouttrumpet played...
185
who composed grace 
 
Jeff Buckley  
186
when was grace released 
 
1994
187
instrumentation in grace  
 
accompanied by guitars,bass guitars, synthesizer,strings and drum kit  guitars...
188
texture in Grace 
 
strings and synthesizer used to vary the texture texture thickens towards the end of the...
189
use of technology in grace 
 
modulation, distortion, flanging, overdubbing, extra vocal parts, EQ in the final verse 
190
structure in grace 
 
intro,verse,chorus,intro,verse,chorus,bridge,intro,verse, coda
191
tonality of Grace 
 
E minor, intro focuses on the chord of D
192
Harmony in Grace 
 
standard 1,4,5 chord progression- avoided chords are chromatic and in parallel motion very...
193
melody in Grace 
 
vocal part has improvisation and a wide range over 2 octavesvocal phrases falling...
194
word setting of grace 
 
syllabic - melismatic on the world love and fire
vocalization-falsettoword painting on ;...
195
metre of grace 
 
12-8
196
rhythm of grace
 
syncopation-rhythmically freelots of cross rhythms
197
who composed ' why does my heart feel so bad'
 
Moby
198
when was  ' why does my heart feel so bad' released
 
1999
199
key features of dance music
 
4-4 metreuse of electronic soundstrong beats looped sections and short repetitive phrases
200
samples of  ' why does my heart feel so bad'
 
based on two samples- a 1953 gospel choir recording(1) and an song called king Jesus will...
201
melody in  ' why does my heart feel so bad'
 
been manipulated - have vintage style - not cleaned up surface noisesamples looped  to...
202
structure of  ' why does my heart feel so bad'
 
based on verse chorus - looping creates this intro, verse, chorus,verse,silence(1bar)chorus,verse
203
texture in  ' why does my heart feel so bad'
 
build up as tracks are introducedpiano only,voice,drums+strings,bass,piano chordsafter breakdown...
204
metre of  ' why does my heart feel so bad'
 
4-4
205
tempo of  ' why does my heart feel so bad' 
 
98bpm
206
rhythm of  ' why does my heart feel so bad'
 
varied to provide contrast 
207
use of technology in  ' why does my heart feel so bad' 
 
synthesizers,sampler,drum machine,sequencerpanning,electronic ghosting ,reverb,echoes,EQ
208
harmony in ' why does my heart feel so bad'
 
entirely diatonic - based on three simple chord progressions
209
tonality in  ' why does my heart feel so bad'
 
Am,Em,G,D- first sampleC,Am,C,Am then F,C,F,C - second sampleDorian mode on A
210
who composed the Skye waulking song 
 
Capercaillie
211
when was Skye waulking song released
 
2000
212
what language is  Skye waulking song in 
 
Gaelic 
213
instrumentation in  Skye waulking song 
 
countermelody: violin, Wurlitzer piano, uilleann pipes and bouzouki bass line : bass...
214
texture of  Skye waulking song 
 
layered texture opens with cluster chords 
215
structure of  Skye waulking song 
 
call, response pattern:phrase D,refrain B,phrase D,refrain Eintro,verse1,verse2, instrumental...
216
melody of  Skye waulking song 
 
pentatonicuses a low register- in vocal tenor clef syllabic
217
rhythm of  Skye waulking song 
 
frequent syncopationat the start there are cross rhythms then there is clear emphasis on the...
218
metre of  Skye waulking song 
 
12-8
219
harmony in  Skye waulking song 
 
G major and entirely diatonicthree main chords- G ,Em,Cmodal feel
220
who performs yiri
 
koko
221
what country do koko come from
 
Burkina Faso
222
instrumentation in yiri
 
balafon,djembe(drum), talking drum also vocals are used
223
structure in yiri
 
intro- short, balafon solo- play tremolomain section-drums play throughout, alternates between...
224
melody in yiri
 
balafons play short patterns - fall from high to lowtend to emphasis G flat and D flat 
225
harmony in yiri
 
in the key of G flat major. most of the music is hexatonic 
226
rhythm in yiri
 
lots of syncopation and cross rhythmsvocalists use tripletsdrums play rhythmical ostinatos 
227
metre in yiri
 
4-4
228
tempo of yiri
 
free tempo with a steady pulse
229
texture in yiri
 
layered texture but there is a monophonic intro, and occasional heterophonic  texture 
230
dynamics in yiri
 
there is little dynamic variation

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