The Muscular System

43 cards

Sliding Filam Ent Theo


 
  
Created Nov 1, 2011
by
marlasinger09

 

 
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1
Who discovered the sliding filament theory?
 
Hugh Huxley in 1969
2
What are the 4 purposes of muscles?
 
Maintain vertical posture in space - tonus Heat through shivering External mobility...
3
A muscle is referred to as ___  ____s because of their threadlike, slender shape.
 
Muscle fibers
4
Each muscle fiber is made up of a bunch of  ________________, very fine, longitudinal...
 
Myofibrils
5
A connective tissue called the __________ covers the muscle fibers.
 
Endomysium
6
Groups of muscle fibers are called __________ and are bound together by the perimysium.
 
Fasciculi
7
From macroscopic to microscopic: Muscle > _____ > muscle fiber (cell) > myofibril...
 
Fascicle Myofilament
8
What anchors the muscle to the bone?
 
Tendon
9
A broad flat tendon
 
Aponeurosis. Tendons are more like cords, whereas aponeuroses are more sheetlike.
10
What is a tendon sheath?
 
Tubular structures that wrap tendons as they cross multiple joints, as in the hands and feet.
11
What is retinacula?
 
Bandagelike retaining bands of connective tissue, found primarily in the elbows, knees and...
12
What is sarcolemma?
 
The cell membrane of a muscular cell.
13
In a muscular cell, what is the cytoplasm called?
 
Sarcoplasm
14
Whatr do you call many muscle fibers bound up together?
 
Fasciculi
15
Explain the muscle cell version of the endoplasmic reticulum?
 
Sarcoplasmic reticulum is a system of cavities that contain sarcomeres. It holds and releases...
16
Connective tissue coverings from macroscopic to microscopic: ____ ______ (wraps around muscle...
 
Deep fascia entire muscle fasciculi endomysium
17
______________ spread the nerve impulse by transporting stored ions into and out of the cell.
 
Transverse tubules (T Tubules)
18
What are the 5 types of muscle fiber arrangements and give an example of each:
 
Circular (mouth); pennate (quads) ; parallel (romboids); convergent (trapezoid), Fusiform...
19
The muscle responsible for causing a specific or desired reaction.
 
Agonist (or primary mover)
20
Opposing muscle to the agonist, must relax and lengthen
 
Antagonist
21
What is the part of the skeletal muscle that is the tendinous attachment closest to the axillary...
 
origin
22
What is a muscle called that crosses two joints?
 
Biarticular
23
What does multiarticular mean?
 
A muscle that crosses more than two joints
24
What is the opposite of muscular contraction?
 
Muscular stretching
25
What is tonus?
 
Ability of the body to hold itself upright in space
26
What are troponin and tropomyosin?
 
Proteins. Troponin is attached to actin and holds the tropomyosin on the myosin. In muscle...
27
What is concentric contraction?
 
An isotonic contraction of the muscle that shortens it.
28
Compare the origin and insertion of a muscle.
 
The origin is the attaching point on the part of the skeleton with the least movement. Insertion...
29
Explain muscle spindles and golgi tendon organs.
 
Both proprioreceptors, muscle spindles are located in the belly of the muscle and are stimulated...
30
What is a motor unit?
 
A single motor neuron plus all its muscle fibers.
31
What are the four roles a muscle might take when coordinating with other muscles?
 
Agonist - primary mover Antagonist - relaxes to assist agonist Synergist - works along with...
32
What is the difference between a fast twitch, slow twitch and intermediate twitch?
 
Fast twitch is white muscle that fatigues easily. Slow twitch is red muscle that has endurance. Intermediate...
33
What is recruitment?
 
Motor unit activation based on need.
34
What is extensibility?
 
Ability of muscle fibers to lengthen
35
What are motor end plates?
 
Fold in the sarcomere where motor neurons connect.
36
What does myofascial refer to?
 
Skeletal muscles and their related fascia in the muscular system.
37
What is aponeurosis?
 
A broad, flat tendon
38
What are fasciculi?
 
Bundles of muscle fibers held together by perimysium.
39
What is myosin?
 
A thick protein filament in myofibrils that works with actin to create a sliding filament.
40
What is retinacula?
 
Retaining bands of connective tissue that cover tendons in wrists, hands, knees
41
What structure releases calcium?
 
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
42
What purposes does the muscular system serve?
 
Provide heaI through shivering Enable upright posture Internal movement External movement
43
Explain the sliding filament theory.
 
Brain releases a motor neuron that travels to muscle cell. It releases a nerve impulse that...


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