Clinical Psychology

EPPP Clinical Psychology
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Research on EMDR has found that its effects are attributable to _______________.
Imaginal exposure (exposure to the feared stimulus).
In which type of therapy does the therapist become the third member of a therapeutic triangle?
Bowen's Extended Family Systems Therapy
Piaget's Concrete Operational stage is characteristic of children age ___ to ___yo.
7 to 11
In Freudian Psychoanalysis, the goal of confrontation is to __________.
help the client see a behavior in a new way
A client-centered therapist would most likely respond to transference by ____________.
disregarding it.
There is ________ variability among older people than younger people on a range of characteristics
According to Helm's a "crossed relationship" occurs when
the counselor and client have opposing racial attitudes about whites and blacks
Nonsexist therapy focuses on __________ by using _________ techniques.

personal growth
Which type of therapy has the perspective that people are biologically prone to the acquisition of irrational beliefs?
Ellis's Rational Emotive Therapy
Smith and Glass were the first to apply _________ to psychological research.
Describe the 3 structures in Freud's structural theory of personality.

id: primal, libinal urges
ego: reality-based, attempts to delay id's drives, modulates the conflicts between the id and the superego
superego: societal, external values, attempts to block id's drives
What are the techniques used in Freudian psychoanalysis?
confrontation, clarification, interpretation, and working through
________ involves making statements that help the client see his or her behavior in a new way.
_______ involves restating the client's words and feelings in clearer terms.
________ involves connecting current behavior to unconscious processes.
_______ is the emotional release achieved through recalling unconscious material.
A client is said to have ________ when he understands the relationship between his current behaviors and unconscious processes.
The final and longest stage of psychoanalysis, ________, involves assimilation of the new insights into the personality.
working through
In contrast to Freud, Adler believed that behavior is motivated by _______ ________ _________.
conscious, future goals
Adler distinguished between a health and unhealthy _______ which impact the way an individual deals with feelings of inferiority.
style of life
Adler believed that the characteristic necessary for a health style of life was ___________.
social interest
Jung believed that the unconsious is comprised of the _______ and the _________ unconscious.
personal, collective
Jung believed that the collective unconscious contained ________ which represent models of persons or behavior passed down from generation to generation.
Jung was most interested in development at what age?
after age 30
Jung used this term, which is the main goal of therapy, to refer to the process of integrating the conscious and unconscious parts of the self.
What was Jung's view of transference?
Jung believed transference to be the projection of the collective and personal unconscious
Object relations theorists consider _____ to be a basic inborn drive.
object-seeking (seeking relationships with others)
Margaret Mahler referred to a child's struggle between dependence and independence as the _________ stage.
The resolution of the separation-individuation phase is object ________, which occurs around 3 yrs of age.
Carl Roger's is known for ________ therapy, which falls into the category of _________ therapies.
person-centered, humanistic
Roger believed that _________ was innate and the primary motivator.
a person's desire for self-actualization
According to Roger, the self becomes disorganized as a result of incongruence between _______ and _________.
self, experience
Roger believed that experiencing ____________ often led to this incongruence (between self and experience).
conditions of worth
Evaluations of any kind, positive or negative represent _________.
conditions of worth
What are the 3 facilitative conditions in Roger's person-centered therapy?

unconditional positive regard
According to Gestalt therapist Fritz Perls, the personality consists of the _____ and the _________.

List and define the 4 major boundary disturbance of Gestalt therapy.

introjection: "swallows"/accepts without understanding or assimilating
projection: disowning parts of self by assigning them to others
retroflection: doing to oneself what you want to do to others (i.e. anger towards others is turned inward)
confluence: inadequate boundary between self and others
What is considered the primary curative factor in Gestalt therapy?
awareness (of one's present thoughts, feelings, and actions)
What is the most important tool in Existential therapy?
the client-therapist relationship
List the innate needs identified by William Glasser's Reality Therapy.

Define's Glasser's Success Identity and Failure Identity.

A Success Identity involves getting your needs met in a responsible way which does not infringe upon the rights of others.
A Failure Identity is the opposite and involves fulfilling your needs in an irresponsible way.
What was Glasser's view of transference?
Glasser viewed transference as detrimental to therapy.
Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) was originally developed to treat:
major depression
What are the 4 problem areas identified by IPT which contribute to interpersonal functioning?

interpersonal role disputes
role transitions
interpersonal deficits
What are 3 types of questions commonly asked of clients in Solution-Focused Therapy?

Miracle questions
Exception questions
Scaling questions
List and define the 5 stages of change in Prochaska and DiClemente's Transtheoretical Model of behavior change.

pre-contemplation: not aware of problem, no intention of changing
contemplation: aware of the problem, considering change in the next 6 months
preparation: plans to take action within next month
action: have started change behaviors
maintenance: behavior change has lasted at least 6 months and person is taking steps to prevent relapse
Motivational Interviewing combines the Transtheoretical Model and Roger's __________.

client-centered approach
Describe the difference between symmetrical and complimentary communications.

symmetrical communication exists between 2 people of equal power in the relationship, can become competitive
complimentary communication exists when one person is clearly in the position of power and the other is subordinate
Extended Family Systems Therapy is associated with which therapist?
Murray Bowen
Define the Bowenian term "differentiation".
Differentiation in Extended Family Systems Therapy refers to the extent to which family members' feelings and thoughts are distinct; an individual's ability to separate his/her intellectual and emotional functioning.
Define Bowen's term, Emotional Triangle.
An Emotional Triangle occurs when a relationship between 2 people is stressed and they recruit a 3rd person to diffuse the tension.
Define Bowen's Multigenerational Transmission Process.
Bowen believed that lower levels of differentiation get passed down through the generations. This occurs because couples typically have similar levels of differentiation to each other, and if they create an emotional triangle with their child then the child will have a lower level of differentiation and so on.
According to Bowen, what is the primary goal of therapy?
to increase family member's levels of differentiation
What is the focus of Minuchin's Structural Family therapy?
the boundaries between family members (remember structure = boundary)
Name and define the 3 types of boundary disturbances (aka rigid triads) in Structural Family therapy.

Detouring: parents overprotect or blame child for family's problems
Stable coalition: parent and child gang up on other parent
Triangulation (aka unstable coalition): when each member of a couple tries to get a child or other person to take their side
What is the main objective in Structural Famly Therapy?
to restructure the family, this is achieved by unbalancing the system via enactment and reframing
Is Minuchin's Structural Family therapy primarily an insight-oriented or behavioral approach?
behavioral, Minuchin believed that action precedes understanding
What are some of the major differences between Extended Family Systems therapy and Structural Family therapy?

In Extended Family Systems therapy the therapist remains neutral and objective, whereas in Structural Family therapy the therapist joins the family and adopts their communication style.
Bowen would work only with the most differentiated family members and have them speak directly to him to diffuse tension; Minuchin would deliberately cause stress to the system and have members enact (role play) their issues
What issue is emphasized in Jay Haley's Strategic Family therapy?
According to Haley, what is the basis of common family communication problems?
struggles for control
Did Haley believe that insight was necessary for change?
no, he actually felt that insight was counterproductive since it could create resistance to change
The first session of Strategic Family therapy is highly structured, what are the 4 stages?

social stage
problem stage
interaction stage
goal-setting stage
Name the major "strategies"/techniques used in Strategic Family therapy.

paradoxical interventions
positioning (exaggerating the severity of the sx)
prescribing the symptom
What unique therapeutic technique is used in Milan Sytemic Family therapy?
a therapeutic team is used, 1 or 2 conduct the therapy and the rest watch behind a one-way mirror and provide feedback during and after the therapy session
What are some of the commonly used therapeutic techniques in Milan Systemic Family therapy?

circular questions
Research has found which factors of group therapy to be rated as most important by group members?

interpersonal input
What are the frequently cited presenting problems by crisis intervention centers?

In order starting with most frequent:
substance abuse
suicide attempt
marital problems
Which group represent the most frequent callers to suicide prevention lines?
young white females
List and define the 3 types of prevention.

primary prevention: aimed at preventing medical and mental disorders in general groups (i.e. public ad campaign on drunk driving)
secondary prevention: aimed at early detection and intervention of issues before problems develop (i.e. routine screenings in schools for learning disabilities, hearing problems, etc)
tertiary prevention: any treatment which deals directly or indirectly with already diagnosed physical and mental disorders
How does the Health Belief Model propose to impact patient's health behaviors?
by increasing their personal responsability and control
What is the focus of consultee-centered case consultation?

The consultee, specifically their skills in working with particular groups or types of problems.
What is theme interference?
Theme interference is a type of transference that can effect objectivity with a particular group or population.
According to Sue and Sue what type of locus of control and locus of responsbility do members of majority culture typically have?
internal locus of control-internal locus of responsbility
According to Sue and Sue what type of locus of control and locus of responsbility do members of minority groups increasingly have?
internal locus of control-external locus of responsbility (a realistic perception of the barriers faced due to racism)
What was Eysenck's (1952) conclusion about the effectiveness of therapy?
Eysenck reviewed 24 outcome studies and concluded that therapy had little impact (and that improvement was largely due to spontaneous remission).
What was the basis of claims that Eysenck's results were flawed?
Eysenck's used flawed methodology, non-equivalent control and tx groups and "control" group received other types of intervention
What was the results of the meta-analysis about therapy outcomes conducted by Smith, Glass, and Miller (1980)?
They calculated an effect size of .85 across 475 studies; 80% of those in tx had better outcomes than those who needed, but did not get tx.
Describe the "dose-dependent effect" found by Howard et al in regards to therapy outcome.
Howard found that outcomes level off around 26 session with 75% of clts showing measurable improvement; an additional 26 sessions (52 total) only increases this by 10% to 85% of clts showing improvement.
What are the pros and cons of efficacy studies?
Efficacy studies are clinical trials with tight control over procedures, which maximizes the ability to detect change based on the IV. However, this tight control is not typical of treatment so limits generalizability to other settings.
What are the pros and cons of effectiveness studies?
Effectiveness studies evaluate treatment as usual . Therefore, it is difficult to isolate the effects of the intervention, but these studies are good for determining the generalizibility, feasibility, and cost-effectiveness of tx.
Names the stages in Helm's White Racial Identity Development Model.

[cats don't run past individual attention]
What are the stage's of Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Racial Identitiy Development model?

Resistance and Immersion
Integrative Awareness
What are the stages of Cross's Black Racial (Nigrescence) Identity Development Model?


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