Molecular Biology: Protein Synthesis: Transcriptio

24 cards


 
  
Created Jul 10, 2013
by
reganprep

 

 
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1
What does mRNA stand for?
 
mRNA stands for messenger RNA.
2
How is mRNA formed?
 
mRNA is the product of transcription and the template for translation.
3
How is the 5' cap protected from exonuclease degeneration?
 
The 5' cap is a modified nucleotide linked in a special way to the mRNA. This protects...
4
What protects the 3' end of the mRNA from exonuclease degradation?
 
The poly-A tail protects the 3' end of the mRNA from exonuclease degradation.
5
What is the structure of eukaryotic mRNA?
 
6
Do prokaryotic mRNAs have a 5' cap and polyA tail?
 
No,prokaryotic mRNAs don't have the 5' cap or polyA tail.
7
What are tRNA (transfer RNA) and rRNA (ribosomal RNA) products of? Do they serve as the...
 
Both tRNA (transfer RNA) and rRNA (ribosomal RNA) are products of transcription. However, they...
8
What are the responsibilities of tRNA and rRNA?
 
tRNA is responsible for bringing in the correct amino acid during translation. rRNA makes up...
9
What is the composition of tRNA?
 
tRNA is made of nucleotides, many of which is modified for structural and functional reasons....
10
What is the structure of tRNA?
 
tRNA structure: clover leaf structure with anticodon at the tip, and the amino acid at the...
11
What is the rRNA made up of?
 
The rRNA is made of nucleotides, many of which is modified for structural and functional reasons.
12
Why is the rRNA is highly structured?
 
The rRNA is highly structured because it contains the active site for catalysis.
13
What is the responsibility of the rRNA of the large ribosomal subunit?
 
The rRNA of the large ribosomal subunit is responsible for catalyzing peptide bond formation,...
14
Describe the chain initiation  process in the mechanism of transcription.
 
Chain Initiation: RNA polymerase binds to the promoter (TATA box) of the double stranded DNA...
15
Describe the chain elongation process in the mechanism of transcription.
 
Chain elongation: nucleoside triphosphates (AUGCs) adds corresponding to the DNA template....
16
Describe the intrinsic chain termination process in the mechanism of transcription.
 
Intrinsic termination: specific sequences called a termination site creates a stem-loop structure...
17
Describe the Rho (ρ) dependent termination process in the mechanism of transcription.
 
Rho (ρ) dependent termination: a protein called the ρ factor travels along the synthesized...
18
How do enhancers affect transcription when bound by Transcription Factors?
 
Transcription factors (proteins) binds to enhancers or silencers (DNA) to affect transcription....
19
What are Operons?
 
Operons are groups of genes whose transcription can be regulated by binding of either repressors...
20
How do repressors and inducers affect transcriptions?
 
Repressors reduce transcription, inducers increase transcriptions.
21
What happens when a co-repressor binds to its target?
 
When a co-repressor binds to its target, the resulting complex becomes either an active repressor...
22
What happens when a co-inducer binds to its target?
 
When a co-inducer binds to its target, the resulting complex becomes either an active inducer...
23
What are alpha factors?
 
alpha factors: these are how phages control transcription inside their bacterial host. By making...
24
What is transcription attenuation?
 
Transcription attenuation: works in the trp (tryptophan) operon. When tryptophan is scarce...


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