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How many chromosomes are in each cell?
23 with a pair of sex chromosomes (large X and small Y)
What does every egg carry? What does the sperm carry?
Egg carries an X and sperm carries either X or Y
When is the sex of baby determined?
At fertilization (if sperm carries X, female will develop; if sperm carries Y, male will develop)
How are sex organs developed in the fetus?
- during first 6 weeks of development, male and female embryos contain common gonads - structures...
What two tracts form either the male or female reproductive tract?
- the mesonephric (Wolffman Duct) - the paramesonephric (Mullerian Duct)
How is the male reproductive tract and external genitalia developed?
- after 7 weeks, testicular cells produce mullerian inhibiting hormone (MIH) which causes mullerian...
How is the female reproductive tract and external genitalia developed?
- requires no hormonal control - no MIH, so mullerian duct develops into fallopian tubes,...
What is the function of the male reproductive system?
- produce testosterone and sperm - deliver sperm to vagina
What are the functions of the female reproductive system?
- producing estrogen and progesterone - produces eggs, receives sperm, and provides optimal...
What does the external genitalia of the male consist of?
penis and scrotum
What is the penis made up of?
- urethra - glans penis - erectile tissue corpus spongiosum and corpus cavernosum
What does the scrotum contain?
- testes (where sperm and testosterone are produced)
Where is sperm stored after being produced?
- epididymis (coiled tube that is roughly 6 meters)
What occurs during ejaculation?
- sperm travels through vas deferens - it mixes with fluid from the seminal vesicles -...
Where in the testes is sperm produced?
- seminiferous tubues (1000 coiled)
What do the seminiferous tubules contain?
- sertoli cells and developing sperm
What are immediately outside the seminiferous tubules?
- leydig cells (interstitial cells) - within interstitial space
What is the function of the seminiferous tubules?
- site of spermatogonia
What is the function of sertoli cells?
- regulate spermatogenesis and mantain the developing cells (spermatogonia) - produce...
What is the function of leydig cells?
- produce testosterone
What is the function of the epididymis?
- final maturation area and storage site for sperm
What is the function of the vas deferens?
- carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
What is the function of the ejaculatory duct?
- drains into the urethra
What is the function of the seminal vesicles?
- contrubute to large amount of fluid in semen during ejaculation that maintains and nourishes...
What is the function of the prostate gland?
- secretes enzymes and fluid that help neutralize the acid environment of urethra and vagina
What is the function of the bulbourethral gland?
- secrete fluid that helps to neutralize pH and lubricate the urethra and vagina to create...
What is the function of the urethra?
- transports the sperm during ejaculation and drains bladder during urination
- stermatogonia (germ cells) contain 46 chromosomes located in outer edge of seminiferous tubules...
How long does spermatogenesis take?
- 64 days, ends with 4 sperm cells that contain 23 chromosomes each
What is the structure of a sperm cell?
- at stage when not fully mature and able to swim - sperm cell contains a head with an acrosome...
How long does complete maturation of sperm take?
- 12 days - occurs as sperm are moved to epididymis by fluid that is secreted by sertoli cells
How are testicular function controlled?
- follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH, sometimes called ICSH) released...
How does FSH control the functions of testes?
- acts on sertoli cells to promote spermatogenesis while producing inhibin
What is the function of inhibin?
- feeds back to the anterior pituitary to decrease the release of LH and FSH
How does LH work to control testes function?
- stimulates leydig cells to produce testosterone which will feed back to both the hypothalamus...
What is testosterone?
- a steriod hormone produced by leydig cells in testes - formation begins with cholesterol...
Describe the changes in testosterone levels throughout life.
- there's a rise in testosterone levels during fetal development - also a brief increase...
How do testosterone levels rise during puberty?
- levels of GnRH increase which leads to an increase in LH and FSH which causes testosterone...
What are the functions of testosterone?
- development of male reproductive tract and external genitalia in embryo - growth and development...
Describe the decrease in testosterone.
- at 40 years, there is a slow decrease - at age 50, sperm production decreases - called...
What are some side effects of andropause?
- decreased sexual desire and erectile ability - fatigue and depression - decreased lean...
What is the collective name for the female external genitalia?
What makes up the female external genitalia?
- clitoris (small mound of erectile tissue derived from embryonic tissue as the penis) - also...
What does the labium minora enclose?
- vaginal orifice (opening of vagina)
What makes up the female internal genitalia?
- the vagina is the canal that receives the penis - sperm then travels through the cervix...
What is the function of the vagina?
- receives penis and sperm during copulation - allows for dischage of fluid during menstruation -...
What is the function of the cervix?
- secretes mucus from thin (to facilitate sperm entry) to thick (to prevent sperm entry)
What is the function of the uterus?
- site of implantation of fertilized egg - where developing embryo is nourished and maintained -...
What is the function of the fallopian tubes?
- site of fertilization of the egg - contain cilia that pass egg from fimbria to uterus
What is the function of the fimbrae?
- capture egg after it's expelled from ovaries and funnel it into the infundibulum
What is the function of the ovaries?
- produce eggs (oogenesis) and hormones estrogen and progesterone
What are the steps of oogenesis?
- during development, egg is contained in follicle - millions of oogonia are developed in...
- as follicle grows, estrogen production grows causing granulosa cells to grow and produce...
How is estrogen produced?
- estrogen includes estradiol (most potent), estrone, and estriol - production requires the...
How is progesterone produced?
- produced in small quantities by granulosa cells and theca cells before ovulation - LH stimulatees...
How do estrogen levels change during the lifetime?
- low until puberty - puberty brings a dramatic rise in estrogen levels due to increased secretion...
What happens during menopause?
- decreased number of primary follicles in ovaries - with fewer follicles, less estrogen is...
What happens during the proliferative phase (days 7-14)?
- follicle increases production of estrogen, causing LH to surge - follicle ruptures, egg...
What happens during the secretory/luteal phase (days 14-28)?
- follicle develops into corpus luteum and increases production of progesterone that prepares...
What happens during the menses phase (0-7)?
- levels of LH, FSH, estrogen, and progesterone are low - lining of uterus can't be maintain,...
How does the birth control pill work?
- there are two principle hormones (synthetic estrogen and progesterone) - hormones found...