Module 14: Reproductive System

61 cards


 
  
Created Apr 9, 2013
by
faegen_25

 

 
Table View
 
Download
 
Print

Flashcard Set Preview

  Side A   Side B
1
How many chromosomes are in each cell?
 
23 with a pair of sex chromosomes (large X and small Y)
2
What does every egg carry? What does the sperm carry?
 
Egg carries an X and sperm carries either X or Y
3
When is the sex of baby determined?
 
At fertilization (if sperm carries X, female will develop; if sperm carries Y, male will develop)
4
How are sex organs developed in the fetus?
 
- during first 6 weeks of development, male and female embryos contain common gonads
-...
5
What two tracts form either the male or female reproductive tract?
 
- the mesonephric (Wolffman Duct)
- the paramesonephric (Mullerian Duct)
6
How is the male reproductive tract and external genitalia  developed?
 
- after 7 weeks, testicular cells produce mullerian inhibiting hormone (MIH) which causes mullerian...
7
How is the female reproductive tract and external genitalia developed?
 
- requires no hormonal control
- no MIH, so mullerian duct develops into fallopian tubes,...
8
What is the function of the male reproductive system?
 
- produce testosterone and sperm
- deliver sperm to vagina
9
What are the functions of the female reproductive system?
 
- producing estrogen and progesterone
- produces eggs, receives sperm, and provides...
10
What does the external genitalia of the male consist of?
 
penis and scrotum
11
What is the penis made up of?
 
- urethra
- glans penis
- erectile tissue corpus spongiosum and corpus cavernosum
12
What does the scrotum contain?
 
- testes (where sperm and testosterone are produced)
13
Where is sperm stored after being produced?
 
- epididymis (coiled tube that is roughly 6 meters)
14
What occurs during ejaculation?
 
- sperm travels through vas deferens
- it mixes with fluid from the seminal vesicles 
15
Where in the testes is sperm produced?
 
- seminiferous tubues (1000 coiled)
16
What do the seminiferous tubules contain?
 
- sertoli cells and developing sperm
17
What are immediately outside the seminiferous tubules?
 
- leydig cells (interstitial cells)
- within interstitial space
18
What is the function of the seminiferous tubules?
 
- site of spermatogonia
19
What is the function of sertoli cells?
 
- regulate spermatogenesis and mantain the developing cells (spermatogonia) 
-...
20
What is the function of leydig cells?
 
- produce testosterone
21
What is the function of the epididymis?
 
- final maturation area and storage site for sperm
22
What is the function of the vas deferens?
 
- carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
23
What is the function of the ejaculatory duct?
 
- drains into the urethra
24
What is the function of the seminal vesicles?
 
- contrubute to large amount of fluid in semen during ejaculation that maintains and nourishes...
25
What is the function of the prostate gland?
 
- secretes enzymes and fluid that help neutralize the acid environment of urethra and vagina
26
What is the function of the bulbourethral gland?
 
- secrete fluid that helps to neutralize pH and lubricate the urethra and vagina to create...
27
What is the function of the urethra?
 
- transports the sperm during ejaculation and drains bladder during urination
28
Explain spermatogenesis.
 
- stermatogonia (germ cells) contain 46 chromosomes located in outer edge of seminiferous tubules...
29
How long does spermatogenesis take?
 
- 64 days, ends with 4 sperm cells that contain 23 chromosomes each
30
What is the structure of a sperm cell?
 
- at stage when not fully mature and able to swim
- sperm cell contains a head with...
31
How long does complete maturation of sperm take?
 
- 12 days
- occurs as sperm are moved to epididymis by fluid that is secreted by sertoli...
32
How are testicular function controlled?
 
- follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH, sometimes called ICSH) released...
33
How does FSH control the functions of testes?
 
- acts on sertoli cells to promote spermatogenesis while producing inhibin
34
What is the function of inhibin?
 
- feeds back to the anterior pituitary to decrease the release of LH and FSH
35
How does LH work to control testes function?
 
- stimulates leydig cells to produce testosterone which will feed back to both the hypothalamus...
36
What is testosterone?
 
- a steriod hormone produced by leydig cells in testes
- formation begins with cholesterol...
37
Describe the changes in testosterone levels throughout life.
 
- there's a rise in testosterone levels during fetal development
- also a brief...
38
How do testosterone levels rise during puberty?
 
- levels of GnRH increase which leads to an increase in LH and FSH which causes testosterone...
39
What are the functions of testosterone?
 
- development of male reproductive tract and external genitalia in embryo
- growth and...
40
Describe the decrease in testosterone.
 
- at 40 years, there is a slow decrease
- at age 50, sperm production decreases
-...
41
What are some side effects of andropause?
 
- decreased sexual desire and erectile ability
- fatigue and depression
- decreased...
42
What is the collective name for the female external genitalia?
 
- vulva
43
What makes up the female external genitalia?
 
- clitoris (small mound of erectile tissue derived from embryonic tissue as the penis)
-...
44
What does the labium minora enclose?
 
- vaginal orifice (opening of vagina)
45
What makes up the female internal genitalia?
 
- the vagina is the canal that receives the penis
- sperm then travels through the cervix...
46
What is the function of the vagina?
 
- receives penis and sperm during copulation
- allows for dischage of fluid during menstruation
47
What is the function of the cervix?
 
- secretes mucus from thin (to facilitate sperm entry) to thick (to prevent sperm entry)
48
What is the function of the uterus?
 
- site of implantation of fertilized egg
- where developing embryo is nourished and...
49
What is the function of the fallopian tubes?
 
- site of fertilization of the egg
- contain cilia that pass egg from fimbria to uterus
50
What is the function of the fimbrae?
 
- capture egg after it's expelled from ovaries and funnel it into the infundibulum
51
What is the function of the ovaries?
 
- produce eggs (oogenesis) and hormones estrogen and progesterone
52
What are the steps of oogenesis?
 
- during development, egg is contained in follicle
- millions of oogonia are developed...
53
Explain ovulation.
 
- as follicle grows, estrogen production grows causing granulosa cells to grow and produce...
54
How is estrogen produced?
 
- estrogen includes estradiol (most potent), estrone, and estriol
- production requires...
55
How is progesterone produced?
 
- produced in small quantities by granulosa cells and theca cells before ovulation
-...
56
How do estrogen levels change during the lifetime?
 
- low until puberty
- puberty brings a dramatic rise in estrogen levels due to increased...
57
What happens during menopause?
 
- decreased number of primary follicles in ovaries
- with fewer follicles, less estrogen...
58
What happens during the proliferative phase (days 7-14)?
 
- follicle increases production of estrogen, causing LH to surge
- follicle ruptures,...
59
What happens during the secretory/luteal phase (days 14-28)?
 
- follicle develops into corpus luteum and increases production of progesterone that prepares...
60
What happens during the menses phase (0-7)?
 
- levels of LH, FSH, estrogen, and progesterone are low
- lining of uterus can't...
61
How does the birth control pill work?
 
- there are two principle hormones (synthetic estrogen and progesterone)
- hormones...


Upgrade and get a lot more done!
Upgrade    Cancel