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What are double ringed nitrogenous bases called, and what are they?
Purines/ guanine and adenine
What are single ringed nitrogenous bases called, and what are they?
Pyrimidines/ cytosine and thymine (they all have ''y's")
What is the name of the rule that refers to the complementary nature of DNA? (Number of Adenine...
The process of DNA making a copy of itself is called
Replication; average speed: 20 nucletides per second are added to new strand
When replication is completed, each molecule will have one original template strand. This is...
In DNA replication, new strands always begin at its __ end and nucleotides are added to its...
5' , 3'
Enzymes responsible for building a DNA polymer; there are more than one kind; they catalyze...
Molecules in the nucleus that provide the substrates to build a new strand of RNA or DNA; have...
Specific sequences on the DNA template strand where replication begins
origin of replication
Giant cloud of molecules that contain all enzymes, all substrates, and everything needed for...
DNA replication machine
Enzyme responsible for pulling the DNA helix apart; breaks hydrogen bonds
Proteins that bind to the strands, keeping them apart so replication can occur
Single-strand binding proteins
Point where the two template strands of DNA are being pulled apart (y-shaped structure)
New strand built in the same direction that the replication fork is moving
New strand built in the opposite direction of the movement of the replication fork
Built first, at the 5' end about 10 nucleotides long; synthesized at the point where replication...
Responsible for building primers, made of RNA; digested and replaced with DNA nucleotides
Gets rid of primers and joins strands together
100 to 2000 nucleotides pieces (short fragments of DNA) that must be joined by DNA ligase to...
A mistake that happens in replication
One molecule of DNA with proteins attached; organized into nucleosomes; condensed chromatin
Cells that lack membrane-bound organelles (no nucleus); generally have only ONE CIRCULAR CHROMOSOME;...
Cells that have membrane-bound organelles, including nucleus; chromosomes are linear; more...
Actual material in the nucleus; 40% DNA, 60% protein
Nonhistone proteins that help maintain chromosome structure
Structures of which the inside is made of 8 histone protein molecules; length of DNA (wrapped...
Two types of Eukaryotic Cells
Germ cells- very specialized cells involved in sexual reproduction Somatic cells-...
Phase in cell division when chromatin is not condensed into chromosomes; no cell division;...
Phase in cell division when no DNA synthesis occurs; growth and metabolism take place; usually...
G1 phase (gap)
Phase in cell division when DNA replication occurs, chromosomes are duplicated
S phase (synthesis)
Phase in cell division when there is alot of protein synthesis; the cell gets ready for division
G2 phase (gap)
Phase in cell division when the nucleus divides; nuclear divison; cytoplasm divides (cytokinesis);...
M phase (mitosis)
Nuclear division that produces two nuclei containing chromosomes identical to the parental...
1st stage of mitosis; nuclear membrane starts to fall apart; pieces are stored in vesicles...
Identical, double-stranded DNA sequences; linked by cohesin (ring shaped protein)
Specialized constricted region of a chromatid; contains kinetochore (a multiprotein complex...
2nd phase of mitosis; mitotic spindle is complete; sister chromatids line up at the midplane...
Mitotic spindle's two types of microtubules:
Polar microtubules- run from the poles and overlap at the metaphase plate Kinetochore...
Other type of mictotubule that runs from the centrioles toward the outside of the cell
3rd stage of mitosis; sister chromatids pulled apart; make daughter chromatids, which head...
Final stage of mitosis; nuclei are starting to reform; spindle fibers disintegrate; reforming...
Division of the cytoplasm to yeild two daughter cells; IN ANIMALS- microfilaments pinch (cleave)...
Why do somatic cells divide?
Growth Repair/replacement Maintenance NOT for sexual reproduction
What regulates the cell cycle?
Proteins (cyclins-regulatory proteins produced by cells); accumulation in cellsCyclin-dependent...
Sequence of the DNA molecules that holds the information to build a specific product (protein...
A complex series of events in which the info in DNA directs production of specific proteins...
The process of building an RNA molecule that is complementary and antiparallel to a small portion...
Process of building a protein polypeptide using the code on an mRNA; the small subunit...
Translation; occurs 20 amino acids per second
What do these characteristics describe? 5 Carbon sugar is ribose 4 bases are adenine, uracil,...
Enzyme used to build RNA polymers; must be present; bind to promoter (specific DNA sequence...
The direction of transcription is always
DOWNSTREAM (toward the 3' end of the RNA or 5' end of the template strand)
Single strand of RNA that carries the information for making a protein; "intermediate molecule";...
Each 3 nitrogenous bases on the mRNA
codon (ONLY on mRNA)
Amino acid that always initiates a polypeptide chain
Single strand of RNA that folds back on itself to form a specific shape; transfers amino acid...
tRNA that has an amino acid binded to its 3' end
Made of proteins bound to rRNA (ribosomal RNA) no membrane; 40% protein and 60% rRNA; split...
Large subunit binding sites
A site (aminoacyl site) the aminoacyl tRNA delievering the next amino acid...
The anticodon that is complementary to the codon attaches with ________ bonds.