Mitosis, DNA/RNA, Gene Expression, Gene Regulatio

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Flashcards For BISC 160Questions About Mitosis, DNA, Transcription And Translation, And Genes....


 
  
Created Oct 26, 2010
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rhs_814

 

 
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1
What are double ringed nitrogenous bases called, and what are they?
 
Purines/ guanine and adenine
2
What are single ringed nitrogenous bases called, and what are they?
 
Pyrimidines/ cytosine and thymine (they all have ''y's")
3
What is the name of the rule that refers to the complementary nature of DNA? (Number of Adenine...
 
Chargaff's Rule
4
The process of DNA making a copy of itself is called
 
Replication; average speed: 20 nucletides per second are added to new strand
5
When replication is completed, each molecule will have one original template strand. This is...
 
Semi-conservative replication
6
In DNA replication, new strands always begin at its __ end and nucleotides are added to its...
 
5' , 3'
7
Enzymes responsible for building a DNA polymer; there are more than one kind; they catalyze...
 
DNA polymerases
8
Molecules in the nucleus that provide the substrates to build a new strand of RNA or DNA; have...
 
free nucleotides
9
Specific sequences on the DNA template strand where replication begins
 
origin of replication
10
Giant cloud of molecules that contain all enzymes, all substrates, and everything needed for...
 
DNA replication machine
11
Enzyme responsible for pulling the DNA helix apart; breaks hydrogen bonds
 
DNA helicase
12
Proteins that bind to the strands, keeping them apart so replication can occur
 
Single-strand binding proteins
13
Point where the two template strands of DNA are being pulled apart (y-shaped structure)
 
Replication fork
14
New strand built in the same direction that the replication fork is moving
 
Leading strand
15
New strand built in the opposite direction of the movement of the replication fork
 
Lagging strand
16
Built first, at the 5' end about 10 nucleotides long; synthesized at the point where replication...
 
RNA primer
17
Responsible for building primers, made of RNA; digested and replaced with DNA nucleotides
 
Primase enzymes
18
Gets rid of primers and joins strands together
 
DNA ligase
19
100 to 2000 nucleotides pieces (short fragments of DNA) that must be joined by DNA ligase to...
 
Ogazaki fragments
20
A mistake that happens in replication
 
Mutation
21
One molecule of DNA with proteins attached; organized into nucleosomes; condensed chromatin
 
chromosome
22
Cells that lack membrane-bound organelles (no nucleus); generally have only ONE CIRCULAR CHROMOSOME;...
 
Prokaryotic cells
23
Cells that have membrane-bound organelles, including nucleus; chromosomes are linear; more...
 
Eukaryotic cells
24
Actual material in the nucleus; 40% DNA, 60% protein
 
Chromatin
25
Nonhistone proteins that help maintain chromosome structure
 
Scaffolding proteins
26
Structures of which the inside is made of 8 histone protein molecules; length of DNA (wrapped...
 
Nucleosome
27
Two types of Eukaryotic Cells
 
Germ cells- very specialized cells involved in sexual reproduction   Somatic cells-...
28
Phase in cell division when chromatin is not condensed into chromosomes; no cell division;...
 
Interphase
29
Phase in cell division when no DNA synthesis occurs; growth and metabolism take place; usually...
 
G1 phase (gap)
30
Phase in cell division when DNA replication occurs, chromosomes are duplicated
 
S phase (synthesis)
31
Phase in cell division when there is alot of protein synthesis; the cell gets ready for division
 
G2 phase (gap)
32
Phase in cell division when the nucleus divides; nuclear divison; cytoplasm divides (cytokinesis);...
 
M phase (mitosis)
33
Nuclear division that produces two nuclei containing chromosomes identical to the parental...
 
Mitosis
34
1st stage of mitosis; nuclear membrane starts to fall apart; pieces are stored in vesicles...
 
Prophase
35
Identical, double-stranded DNA sequences; linked by cohesin (ring shaped protein)
 
Sister chromatids
36
Specialized constricted region of a chromatid; contains kinetochore (a multiprotein complex...
 
Centromere
37
2nd phase of mitosis; mitotic spindle is complete; sister chromatids line up at the midplane...
 
Metaphase
38
Mitotic spindle's two types of microtubules:
 
Polar microtubules- run from the poles and overlap at the metaphase plate   Kinetochore...
39
Other type of mictotubule that runs from the centrioles toward the outside of the cell
 
Astral microtubules
40
3rd stage of mitosis; sister chromatids pulled apart; make daughter chromatids, which head...
 
Anaphase
41
Final stage of mitosis; nuclei are starting to reform; spindle fibers disintegrate; reforming...
 
Telophase
42
Division of the cytoplasm to yeild two daughter cells; IN ANIMALS- microfilaments pinch (cleave)...
 
Cytokinesis
43
Why do somatic cells divide?
 
Growth Repair/replacement Maintenance NOT for sexual reproduction
44
What regulates the cell cycle?
 
Proteins (cyclins-regulatory proteins produced by cells); accumulation in cells

Cyclin-dependent...
45
Sequence of the DNA molecules that holds the information to build a specific product (protein...
 
Gene
46
A complex series of events in which the info in DNA directs production of specific proteins...
 
Gene expression
47
The process of building an RNA molecule that is complementary and antiparallel to a small portion...
 
Transcription
48
Process of  building a protein polypeptide using the code on an mRNA; the small subunit...
 
Translation; occurs 20 amino acids per second
49
What do these characteristics describe? 5 Carbon sugar is ribose 4 bases are adenine, uracil,...
 
RNA
50
Enzyme used to build RNA polymers; must be present; bind to promoter (specific DNA sequence...
 
RNA polymerase
51
The direction of transcription is always
 
DOWNSTREAM (toward the 3' end of the RNA or 5' end of the template strand)
52
Single strand of RNA that carries the information for making a protein; "intermediate molecule";...
 
mRNA
53
Each 3 nitrogenous bases on the mRNA
 
codon (ONLY on mRNA)
54
Amino acid that always initiates a polypeptide chain
 
Met (AUG)
55
Single strand of RNA that folds back on itself to form a specific shape; transfers amino acid...
 
tRNA
56
tRNA that has an amino acid binded to its 3' end
 
Amino-acyl tRNA
57
Made of proteins bound to rRNA (ribosomal RNA) no membrane; 40% protein and 60% rRNA; split...
 
Ribosome
58
Large subunit binding sites
 
A site (aminoacyl site) the aminoacyl tRNA delievering the next amino acid...
59
The anticodon that is complementary to the codon attaches with ________ bonds.
 
Hydrogen


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