Microbiology - Quiz# 6 Chapters: 16, 17 & 18

Microbiology - Quiz# 6 Chapters: 16, 17 & 18 Microbiology - Quiz#
  
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susceptibility
 
lack of resistance to a disease
immuntiy
 
ability to ward off a disease
innate immunity
 
defense against any pathogen
adaptive immunity
 
immunity resistance to a specific pathogen
physical host defense factors of skin
 
epidermis (tightly packed cells with kerotine - protective protein)
physical host defense factors of mucous membrane
 
ciliary escalator; microbes trapped in mucous transported away from lungs
physical host defense factors of lacrimal apparatus
 
washes eye
physical host defense factors of saliva, urine, vaginal secretions
 
washes microbes off
host chemical defense factors of fungistatic
 
fatty acid in sebum
host chemical defense factors of lysozyme
 
antibacterial enzyme in: sweat, tears, saliva, and tissue fluids
host chemical defense factors of gastric juice and skin
 
it has a low pH
host chemical defense factors of transferrins
 
bind to iron that impedes bacterial survival
host chemical defense factors of normal micorbiota
 
compete with pathogens
differential white cell count
 
percentage of each type of white cell in a sample of 100 WBC's
leukocytes
 
WBC: neutophils, basophils, eosinophils, dendritic cells, monocytes, lymphocytes
neutrophils
 
phagocytes
basophils
 
produce histamines
eosinophils
 
toxic to paracites also responsible for allergies
dendritic cells
 
initiates adaptive immune response
monocytes
 
phagocytic as a mature macrophage
lymphocytes
 
involved in specific immunity
Inflammation
 
redness pain heat swelling (edema)
Acute phase proteins are activated
 
proteins like complement (pokes holes), cytokines and kinins which attract WBC's
vasodilation
 
histamine causes blood vessels to dialate leaking WBC making redness and swelling
When fever present
 
G- endotoxin causes phagocytes to release IL-1, hypothalamus releases prostaglandins to reset hypothalamus to higher temp. Bodys temp increases. When IL-1 eliminated, temp falls (crisis).
fever advantages
 
too warm for some pathogens, innactivates some toxins, enhances immune responsemakes you feel ill and want to rest
disadvantages to fever
 
tachycardia, acidosis, dehydration
The compliment system
 
serum proteins activated in a cascade
opsonization or immune adherence
 
cell coated with proteins cause enhanced phagocytosis (adds handles)
membrane attack complex forms
 
cytolysis (process of making the hole) of bacterial cells
compliment proteins attract
 
phagocytes
Alpha & Beta IFNs (interferons) cause
 
cells to produce antiviral proteins that inhibit viral replication
Innate immunity defense against
 
any pathogen
adaptive immunity is
 
specific antibody and lymphocytes to an antigen developed over a lifetime
lymphatic system returns
 
tissue fluid to cirrculation which is the "home" for the immune system
Antigen is
 
a substance that causes the body to produce specific antibodies (for in fluid) or sensitized T cells ( for inside the cell).
Antibody is
 
protiens made in response to an antigen, can combine with the Ag
Compliment
 
serum proteins that bind to Ab in an Ag-Ab reaction; causes cell lysis
hummoral immuntiy involves
 
antibodies (produced by B cells) that attack microbes in body fluids
B cells recognizes Ag by
 
Ab on their surfaces (*only B cells make Ab)
Cell-mediated immunity involves
 
T cell that attack microbes within body cells: kills the entire infected host cell
serology
 
the study of reactions between Ab and Ag
globulins
 
serum(blood) protein
immunoglobulins
 
aka Ab
IgG Ab
 
most common, enhances phagocytosis, neutralizes toxins and viruses
IgM Ab
 
agglutinates microbes, 1st Ab produced in response to an infection
IgA Ab
 
mucosal protection
IgD Ab
 
innate immune response
IgE Ab
 
allergic reactions, lysis of parasitic worms
Ag presenting cells
 
macrophage pathogen, places it on surface (bound by MHC - "self" marker protein) and presents it as a self marker
Humoral response
 
activation of B cells
antibody diversity
 
countless random variations of Ab
clonal selection
 
Ag binds to one of the countless random variations of Ab
clonal expansion
 
causes a specific B cell to multiply
plasma cells is an Ab that secrets
 
B clones to fight current infection
memory cells are
 
B clones stored in lymph tissue for future infections
T-independant Ag
 
do NOT require a T helper cell to activate B cells, polysaccharide weak response
T-dependant Ag
 
DO require T helper cells to activate B cells, protein strong response
Result of Ag-Ab binding - neutralization of toxin
 
prevents binding to cell receptors, encourages phagocytosis
Result of Ag-Ab binding - opsonization (coating) of bacteria
 
prevents binding to tissues, encourages phagocytosis
Result of Ag-Ab binding - agglutination / immune complex formation
 
IgM clumps bacteria, prevents spread, encourages phagocytosis
T-helper cells are activated to reproduce when
 
presented Ag, also activated TH memory cells, activates B-cells
cytotoxic T cells activated to produce when
 
presented antigen by a microphage
natural killer
 
cells destroy other cells
cytokines
 
a way for immune system cells to communicate
immunologic memory
 
B and T memory cells stored in lymph tissues
naturally acquired ACTIVE immunity
 
resulting from infection
naturally acquired PASSIVE immunity
 
transplacental or via colostrum
artificially acquired ACTIVE immunity
 
injection of antigens (vaccination)
artificially acquired PASSIVE immuntiy
 
injection of antibodies
vaccine
 
substance containing Ag
inactivated whole agent
 
killed organisms
attenuated whole agent
 
live, weakend microbes - most closely mimics actual infection
subunit
 
contains antigenic fragments
recombinant
 
Ag produced by engineered bacteria
subunit recombinant vaccines safest
 
no whole microbes
conjugated vaccine
 
stronger immune response to polysaccharide Ag in children
toxoid
 
inactive form of toxin
monoclonal antibodies (MABS)
 
single type of purified Ab, mass produced, fused WBC/cancer cells, used to detect almost any kind of chemical
serology
 
immunocological testing
direct test
 
uses Ab to detect Ag in patients sample
indirect test
 
uses Ag to detect Ab in patients serum
precipitation reaction
 
involve soluble Ag with Ab. agglutinated complex visible precipitates in a + test
agglutination reaction
 
invole participate Ag and Ab (blood type testing)
if Ab titer increases
 
body is fighting an infection
Ab titer
 
concentration of Ab
viral hemagglutination
 
involvees agglutination of RBC
viral hemagglutination inhibtion
 
Ab bind to virus preventing hemagglutination, reveals presence of Ab
tagged antibody assay
 
detects low concentration of Ag/Ab using tag
flourescent Ab techniques
 
attach flourescent dye to Ab, specific Ag "glow" under UV light
ELISA
 
enzymethat causes media to change color attached to Ab, color change = positive test

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