Microbiology - Quiz# 6 Chapters: 16, 17 & 18

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Microbiology - Quiz#


 
  
Created Nov 17, 2010
by
sarrahshine

 

 
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1
susceptibility
 
lack of resistance to a disease
2
immuntiy
 
ability to ward off a disease
3
innate immunity
 
defense against any pathogen
4
adaptive immunity
 
immunity resistance to a specific pathogen
5
physical host defense factors of skin
 
epidermis (tightly packed cells with kerotine - protective protein)
6
physical host defense factors of mucous membrane
 
ciliary escalator; microbes trapped in mucous transported away from lungs
7
physical host defense factors of lacrimal apparatus
 
washes eye
8
physical host defense factors of saliva, urine, vaginal secretions
 
washes microbes off
9
host chemical defense factors of fungistatic
 
fatty acid in sebum
10
host chemical defense factors of lysozyme
 
antibacterial enzyme in: sweat, tears, saliva, and tissue fluids
11
host chemical defense factors of gastric juice and skin
 
it has a low pH
12
host chemical defense factors of transferrins
 
bind to iron that impedes bacterial survival
13
host chemical defense factors of normal micorbiota
 
compete with pathogens
14
differential white cell count
 
percentage of each type of white cell in a sample of 100 WBC's
15
leukocytes
 

WBC: neutophils, basophils, eosinophils, dendritic cells, monocytes, lymphocytes

16
neutrophils
 
phagocytes
17
basophils
 
produce histamines
18
eosinophils
 
toxic to paracites also responsible for allergies
19
dendritic cells
 
initiates adaptive immune response
20
monocytes
 
phagocytic as a mature macrophage
21
lymphocytes
 
involved in specific immunity
22
Inflammation
 
redness pain heat swelling (edema)
23
Acute phase proteins are activated
 
proteins like complement (pokes holes), cytokines and kinins which attract WBC's
24
vasodilation
 
histamine causes blood vessels to dialate leaking WBC making redness and swelling
25
When fever present
 
G- endotoxin causes phagocytes to release IL-1, hypothalamus releases prostaglandins to reset...
26
fever advantages
 
too warm for some pathogens, innactivates some toxins, enhances immune responsemakes you feel...
27
disadvantages to fever
 
tachycardia, acidosis, dehydration
28
The compliment system
 
serum proteins activated in a cascade
29
opsonization or immune adherence
 
cell coated with proteins cause enhanced phagocytosis (adds handles)
30
membrane attack complex forms
 
cytolysis (process of making the hole) of bacterial cells
31
compliment proteins attract
 
phagocytes
32
Alpha & Beta IFNs (interferons) cause
 
cells to produce antiviral proteins that inhibit viral replication
33
Innate immunity defense against
 
any pathogen
34
adaptive immunity is
 
specific antibody and lymphocytes to an antigen developed over a lifetime
35
lymphatic system returns
 
tissue fluid to cirrculation which is the "home" for the immune system
36
Antigen is
 
a substance that causes the body to produce specific antibodies (for in fluid) or sensitized...
37
Antibody is
 
protiens made in response to an antigen, can combine with the Ag
38
Compliment
 
serum proteins that bind to Ab in an Ag-Ab reaction; causes cell lysis
39
hummoral immuntiy involves
 
antibodies (produced by B cells) that attack microbes in body fluids
40
B cells recognizes Ag by
 
Ab on their surfaces (*only B cells make Ab)
41
Cell-mediated immunity involves
 
T cell that attack microbes within body cells: kills the entire infected host cell
42
serology
 
the study of reactions between Ab and Ag
43
globulins
 
serum(blood) protein
44
immunoglobulins
 
aka Ab
45
IgG Ab
 
most common, enhances phagocytosis, neutralizes toxins and viruses
46
IgM Ab
 
agglutinates microbes, 1st Ab produced in response to an infection
47
IgA Ab
 
mucosal protection
48
IgD Ab
 
innate immune response
49
IgE Ab
 
allergic reactions, lysis of parasitic worms
50
Ag presenting cells
 
macrophage pathogen, places it on surface (bound by MHC - "self" marker protein) and presents...
51
Humoral response
 
activation of B cells
52
antibody diversity
 
countless random variations of Ab
53
clonal selection
 
Ag binds to one of the countless random variations of Ab
54
clonal expansion
 
causes a specific B cell to multiply
55
plasma cells is an Ab that secrets
 
B clones to fight current infection
56
memory cells are
 
B clones stored in lymph tissue for future infections
57
T-independant Ag
 
do NOT require a T helper cell to activate B cells, polysaccharide weak response 
58
T-dependant Ag
 
DO require T helper cells to activate B cells, protein strong response
59
Result of Ag-Ab binding - neutralization of toxin
 
prevents binding to cell receptors, encourages phagocytosis
60
Result of Ag-Ab binding - opsonization (coating) of bacteria
 
prevents binding to tissues, encourages phagocytosis
61
Result of Ag-Ab binding - agglutination / immune complex formation
 
IgM clumps bacteria, prevents spread, encourages phagocytosis
62
T-helper cells are activated to reproduce when
 
presented Ag, also activated TH memory cells, activates B-cells
63
cytotoxic T cells activated to produce when
 
presented antigen by a microphage
64
natural killer
 
cells destroy other cells
65
cytokines
 
a way for immune system cells to communicate
66
immunologic memory
 
B and T memory cells stored in lymph tissues
67
naturally acquired ACTIVE immunity
 
resulting from infection
68
naturally acquired PASSIVE immunity
 
transplacental or via colostrum
69
artificially acquired ACTIVE immunity
 
injection of antigens (vaccination)
70
artificially acquired PASSIVE immuntiy
 
injection of antibodies
71
vaccine
 
substance containing Ag
72
inactivated whole agent
 
killed organisms
73
attenuated whole agent
 
live, weakend microbes - most closely mimics actual infection
74
subunit
 
contains antigenic fragments
75
recombinant
 
Ag produced by engineered bacteria
76
subunit recombinant vaccines safest
 
no whole microbes
77
conjugated vaccine
 
stronger immune response to polysaccharide Ag in children
78
toxoid
 
inactive form of toxin
79
monoclonal antibodies (MABS)
 
single type of purified Ab, mass produced, fused WBC/cancer cells, used to detect almost any...
80
serology
 
immunocological testing
81
direct test
 
uses Ab to detect Ag in patients sample
82
indirect test
 
uses Ag to detect Ab in patients serum
83
precipitation reaction
 
involve soluble Ag with Ab. agglutinated complex visible precipitates in a + test
84
agglutination reaction
 
invole participate Ag and Ab (blood type testing)
85
if Ab titer increases
 
body is fighting an infection
86
Ab titer
 
concentration of Ab
87
viral hemagglutination
 
involvees agglutination of RBC
88
viral hemagglutination inhibtion
 
Ab bind to virus preventing hemagglutination, reveals presence of Ab
89
tagged antibody assay
 
detects low concentration of Ag/Ab using tag
90
flourescent Ab techniques
 
attach flourescent dye to Ab, specific Ag "glow" under UV light
91
ELISA
 
enzymethat causes media to change color attached to Ab, color change = positive test

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