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Side ASide B
- one of most important sites for attack by antibiotics-cause symptoms of disease in animals-provides...
2 main wall types:
gram +gram -
divides bacteria into 2 groups depending on if they retain crystal-violet-iodine stain
purple/blue-wall contains thicker layer of peptoglycan
pink/red-not as much peptoglycan, and has extra outer membrane
*thick cell walls- extend beyond cell wall + capsule of encapsulated bacteria*may regulate...
*on outside of peptidoglycan layer-chemically distinct from usually biological membranes-can...
Outer bilayer membrane of Gram - cell wall
-on outer membrane-unique to G--LPS covalently attached to thin peptidoglycan layer (cell wall)...
- gap b/w cell membrane and outer membrane of G-- metabolically active space
*thick peptidoglycan layer*purple - retain the crystal violet-iodine of g-stain
*thin peptidoglycan layer + outermembrane*red/pink - do not retain crystal violet, stained...
-encloses cell cytoplasm-in both G +/-
contains proteins (up to 200 different kinds)
phospholipid bilayer in cytoplasmic membrane
what carries out most membrane functions?
proteins in bilayer
-secretion of extracytoplasmic proteins-responses to environmental signals
functions of cytoplasmic membrane
phospholipid bilayer is _________ to most substances
-function as pores, channels, or carriers-movement can be passive or active
membrane proteins (transport systems)
- found in both G +/-- contains genetic information-ribosomes-proteins and enzymes-bacterial...
prokaryotes sometimes possess smaller extrachromosomal pieces of DNA called _____ - not critical...
usually one large circular molecules of DNA
total DNA content
- no nuclear membrane!-nucleic acids-found in G +/-contains bacterial genome (DNA)
Nucleoid or nuclear region
-small extrachromosomal circular DNA molecule-found in both G +/- bacteria-not required for...
-composed of protein and RNA-found in both G+/-- synthesize proteins (important sites of action...
acellular infectious agentconsists of nucleic acid (genome) enclosed in protein coat (capside-virally...
what is an example of a slow viral infection?
only reproduce inside living host cells
viruses -obligate intracellular parasites
some replicate in cytoplasm and some in nucleus-viral replication site in host cell is dependent...
viral nucleic acid
viruses infect every known cell type-
microbial, plant and animal
viral nucleic acid structure
either DNA or RNA, never both
-come as RNA-bring in their own enzymes and copy their RNA to DNA
protein coat surrounding nucleic acid
only found in SOME viruses
Virus life cycle:_____ & entry into host cellvirus hijacks _____ & ______ abilities...
attachmentbiosyntheticprotein synthesizingreplication of nucleic acidviral proteins
DNA replication, transcription , and translation occur in cytoplasm
prokaryotes-have cell wall-only viral nucleic acid inters cell
DNA replication and transcription in nucleustranslation in cytoplasm
five main stages: (bacteria + animal virus)
1. attachment2. penetration3. viral synthesis4. assembly & packaging5.virus release from...
-replication-production of viral protein & nucleic acid-how this occurs depends on whether...
what is an example of assembly and packaging of new virus particles?
enveloped viruses bud off